By O. Vandorn. North Greenville University. 2018.
Camptocormia (curved trunk) duloxetine 30mg amex, a rare largely wartime conversion syndrome resembling a simian posture was described independently in 1916 by Souques and Rosanoff-Saloff duloxetine 30 mg line. The features include frontal vertebral flexion cheap duloxetine 30 mg without a prescription, passive drooping of the arms, variable genuflexion, and ataxia. Dissociative hysteria might involve clouding of consciousness and a loss of memory for events occurring during an episode. F44: Dissociative (conversion) disorder (partial or complete loss of normal integration between memories of the past, awareness of identity and immediate sensations, and control of body movements – dissociative amnesia (loss of memory, usually of important recent events/personal information [including those of a criminal, sexual, marital, or financial nature], not organic in origin and too extensive to be blamed on ordinary forgetting or fatigue), dissociative fugue (dissociative amnesia plus an apparently purposeful journey away from home/work during which self-care is maintained; more common following natural catastrophies or during war; patient may become upset when questioned about personal history), trance and possession disorders (temporary loss of both the sense of personal identity and full awareness of the surroundings; may act as if taken over by another personality, deity, or ‘force’), dissociative disorders of movement and sensation (loss of/interference with movements/sensation, not explicable by somatic medical knowledge – some people react repetitively to stress in this way; dissociative movement disorders (e. There are also transient such disorders found in children/adolescents, and a ragbag ‘other’ category (psychogenic confusion and the twilight state). Divided into somatisation disorder (complains of symptoms), undifferentiated cases, hypochondriacal disorder (complains about having a serious and progressive disease), somatoform autonomic disorder (symptoms suggesting disease of body part or system that is innervated by the autonomic nervous system, e. Briquet’s syndrome, dhat, koro, latah, occupational neuroses like writer’s cramp, psychasthenia, and psychogenic syncope), and ‘unspecified’. Undifferentiated somatoform disorder – unexplained physical complaints of at least 6 months duration, below threshold for 1. Pain disorder – descriptions are often dramatic and vivid and pain ‘explains’ all difficulties 5. Undifferentiated somatoform 1581 Some people experience panic as a normal reaction to significant threat, e. It is not true that these patients only complain of (multiple and unexplained) physical symptoms, complaints of psychological (‘psychoform’ symptoms) and interpersonal difficulties being quite common. Many psychiatrists believe that this disorder and hypochondriasis, because of their intransigence and longevity, best belong with the disorders of personality. In fact, there have been reports of excess of antisocial personality disorder in first-degree relatives of patients with somatisation disorder. Stern ea’s (1993) controlled study of females with somatisation disorder reported an excess of personality disorder, especially passive-dependent, histrionic, and ‘sensitive-aggressive’. According to Martin ea,(1985) attempted suicide is common, but not suicide itself. Patients may have co-morbid depression , anxiety, parasuicidal tendencies, and drug abuse. Cloninger (1994) suggests that the best discriminators between somatisation disorder and somatic illness, in cases where thorough investigation leaves aetiology obscure, are multiple organ involvement, early onset and chronic course but no physical signs related to abnormalities of structure, and no characteristic laboratory abnormalities of suggested physical disorder. Cloninger (1994) considers anxiety 1586 disorders, affective disorders, and schizophrenia , to be the main psychiatric disorders that may mimic somatisation disorder. He states that histrionic traits, sexual/menstrual problems, and social impairment 1587 support a diagnosis of somatisation disorder. According to these authors, over 4% of the general population and 9% of tertiary care referrals have this syndrome. The actual prevalence varies with the number of symptoms required for a diagnosis. Most cases are female, although reducing the number of symptoms required and eliminating female-specific symptoms (e. Recurrent depression, chronic interpersonal difficulties , drug abuse, an emotionally deprived childhood, and physical or sexual abuse as a child are commonly recorded. They suggest regular (if infrequent) and scheduled (not dependent on symptoms) interviews, focused physical examination, avoidance of excessive tests,(Ring ea, 2004) avoiding accumulation of drug treatments (taper as needed), diplomatic reframing (reattribution) of somatic complaints by linking them to life circumstances, use of problem lists, coopting a relative as a therapeutic ally, aiming at coping (not curing), examination of 1589 maintaining factors , and remembering that a poor relationship with the therapist may reflect poor parental care/emotional deprivation in childhood. Instead of trying to sell a single aetiology to the patient, 1583 Page and Wessely (2007, p. Pierre Briquet (1796-1881) wrote a book on hysteria (1859) while working at the Charité Hospital in Paris. Patients with somatisation disorder may panic or be depressed, and somatisation may sometimes precede schizophrenic breakdown. This approach opens up multiple avenues for intervention (Kontos & Querques, 2008, p. There is no rule preventing the one patient having features of somatisation disorder, conversion disorder, and hypochondriasis. Culture may add to the problem by an emphasis on keeping super-fit, although hypochondriacs are not noted for taking precautions against health hazards like quitting smoking or taking 1593 a proper diet. The differential diagnosis is wide and includes illness 1594 1595 phobia and delusional disorder, somatic type. The patient classically relates her tale in excessive detail but without emotion (unlike the drama of somatisation disorder). Media coverage of illness or hearing of illness in another person may exacerbate health concerns. Underlying disorders include pain due to depression, the physical symptoms of anxiety, and undifferentiated somatoform disorder. The unreasonableness is clearly recognised by the patient and somatic symptoms are not a major component. Mitchill may have described the first case in 1816: Mary Reynolds, an English woman in Pennsylvania.
Obtain an immediate image over the lower back to assess the quality of the injection generic 20 mg duloxetine overnight delivery. Orientation of the patient into position that contributes to the leak may be helpful generic duloxetine 60mg amex. If the suspected site of the leak is along the spine cheap duloxetine 40mg otc, take posterior images of the entire spine and head (anterior, posterior and both laterals) at 90 minutes, then every hour during working hours that day, then at 24 hours, or at the direction of the staff physician. Leave the pledgetts in place for 4 hours and the patient supine, then obtain images of the head in anterior and lateral projections. In vitro laboratory: Dry pledgetts weights and has absorptive capacity of 2 ml Weight the pledgetts. Calculate ratio: pledgett activity x (pledgett weight after removal-pledgett weight before placement in gm) Average of the activity in the two plasma sample Normal pledgett/plasma radioactivity ratios do not exceed 1. Obtain images of the head in the anterior and both lateral projections, as well as an anterior and posterior image of the abdomen at 24 hours to check activity in kidneys and colon, if the pledgetts counts are inconclusive. Intestinal activity visualized on radionuclide cisternography in patients with cerebrospinal fluid leak. Spinal-cerebrospinal fluid leak demonstrated by radiopharmaceutical cisternography. Obtain immediate image over the lower back to assess the quality of the injection. Obtain 4 hours delayed images over the head in anterior, posterior and both lateral projections. Obtain 24 hours delayed images over the head in anterior, posterior and both lateral projections. Obtain 48 hours delayed images over the head in anterior, posterior and both lateral projections. Manual compression of the valve during injection is mandatory to demonstrate ventricular reflux. Additional information: The injection is performed by the neurosurgeon and a lumbar puncture tray is needed for procedure. Scanning time required: 1 hour Patient Preparation: Check that the patient is not pregnant or breast feeding. Image in the anterior and lateral projections of the head at 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes. Approximately 50% of the injected dose is eliminated in the urine in the first 2 hours and 35% at 24 hours. After intravenous administration, 80% is cleared by tubular secretion and 20% by glomerular filtration. I-iodohippurate reaches a peak of concentration in the kidneys 3-6 minutes postinjection, and is gradually eliminated over the next 30 minutes (2). Since most of hippuran is extracted during a single pass, the rate of excretion can be employed as a measure of renal plasma flow. Renal retention is 24% of the dose 1 hour after injection and a maximum retention of 50% occurs 3-6 hours post injection. In the presence of renal failure the activity is shifted to the liver, gallbladder and gut. A fraction of the injected dose is promptly excreted in the urine enabling visualization of renal blood flow and the collecting system. A smaller amount localizes in the renal tubular cells and the retention time is sufficiently long to permit evaluation of cortical morphology on delayed images. However, this agent has the disadvantage of not measuring a single renal function. It is well established in the medical literature that the risk of morbidity and mortality from these diseases is much greater than the risk from the radiation exposure due to renal radiopharmaceuticals listed above. Therefore, all the renal scintigraphic procedures described below are performed on children and the radiopharmaceutical doses are calculated according to body weight (see chart). Computer acquisition allows for generation of time-activity curves and quantitation of parameters such as kidney/aorta blood flow ratios and relative differential kidney perfusion. Scanning time required: 15 minutes Patient Preparation: Check that the patient is not pregnant or breastfeeding. With the camera view under the table to take posterior views for a bilateral study. The radiopharmaceutical is injected rapidly through a 19-gauge butterfly and is followed by a flush of 20ml normal saline with a 3 way stopcock. Processing: In frame #61 regions of interest are drawn around the following areas: a. Sequential images of the kidneys are obtained in the posterior projection for 30 minutes. If the bladder is not in the field of view, an image of the bladder is obtained at the end of the study.
Whilst the vinca alkaloid vinpocetine improves learning and memory in animals it does not benefit dementia sufferers buy duloxetine 30 mg line. A number of secretases are involved in beta-amyloid peptide (40-42 amino acids) production from amyloid precursor protein buy generic duloxetine 40mg. R-flurbiprofen order duloxetine 40mg line, a gamma-secretase modulator, leads to shorter amino acids that do not lead to Aβ accumulation. Hypercholesterolaemia accelerates amyloid pathology and reduced cholesterol intake slows plaque 2814 development in transgenic mouse models, a finding that may have some application in humans. However, because more educated people may be more likely to take such drugs, the effects of education have to be controlled for in research. Ginkgo biloba, from the leaves of the maidenhair tree, was used in Chinese medicine for millennia; concerns have been raised over a tendency to cause bleeding. The ‘essential oil’ contains cineole, borneol and thujone and the leaf contains many chemicals such as oleic and tannic acids. There may be thrombosis of leptomeningeal or cortical vessels leading to many small infarcts. There is evidence for an increased risk for dementia in people with affective disorders (e. Most studies were of short duration, they were more often unpublished, and they were usually funded by the pharmaceutical industry. Schneider ea (2006) found adverse effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs for treatment of psychosis, aggression, or agitation in Alzheimer patients outweighed any therapeutic advantages. Sultzer ea (2008) used antipsychotic drugs for psychosis or agitated/aggressive behaviour in outpatients with Alzheimer’s disease: the drugs were useful for certain symptoms (e. Conventional antipsychotic drugs may carry similar risks for mortality when used in demented subjects. In the substantia nigra they are brightly eosinophilic (pink) with hyaline core and paler halo; in cortex they are faintly eosinophilic and have no core. They were considered confined to idiopathic Parkinson’s disease 2822 (paralysis agitans) until recent years. Friedrich Heinrich Levy (1885-1950) discovered these bodies in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients in 1912 when with Alzheimer at Kraepelin’s Royal Psychiatric Clinic in Munich. Bennett ea (2006) prospectively reported that 7-14% of non-demented/non-cognitively impaired people who died had Lewy body pathology. Lewy bodies contain ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein and antibodies to these proteins can be used in postmortem tissue as a method of detecting these bodies. The dose of alpha-synuclein (number of genes) may play a role in the aetiology of dementia. In Parkinson’s disease up to 70% of cells are lost from the substantia nigra before symptoms manifest themselves. Cognitive decline has correlated with both neuroleptic usage and with persecutory ideas! L-deprenyl has been suggested for Parkinsonism but it may precipitate hallucinations. Atypical antipsychotic drugs may cause as many problems do as typical agents, although olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole or clozapine may be useful. The usual visual hallucinations are of people or animals that may disappear when the patient stares at the image. Also, the patient may see (illusions) things such as a face in detailed objects like a bush. The German neuropathologist Friedrich Heinrich Lewy (1885-1950), while working with Alzheimer, described spherical neuronal inclusions. Parkinson’s disease patients with overt dementia are no more often depressed than in those without dementia. Anergia, motor retardation, and early awakening may be equally severe in Parkinson’s disease patients with and without depression. A mutation of the gene for α-synuclein on chromosome 4 is associated with rare, autosomal dominant, early-onset Parkinson’s disease. Non-significant neurone loss in cortical areas affected by Lewy bodies (perhaps synaptic dysfunction is operative? Olanzapine indication in dementia terminated because of reports of increased mortality and stroke in that group. Larson (1993) listed the risk factors for vascular 2832 dementia as old age, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus , cardiac disorders, atrial fibrillation, and extracranial arterial disease. A twin study from Norway 2828 [123I]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)nortropane. There was much heterogeneity in the way such lesions were measured and analysed and some studies were omitted because of use of different scales that viewed white matter hyperintensities as continuous variables.
Churchill Livingstone cheap duloxetine 20mg without prescription, New York purchase duloxetine 40mg mastercard, p 145 Janda V 1996 Evaluation of muscular imbalance order duloxetine 40mg otc. In: Ward R (ed) variations in certain cellular characteristics in human Foundations for osteopathic medicine. Williams & lumbar intervertebral discs, including the presence of Wilkins, Baltimore, p 473–479 smooth muscle actin. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Kappler R, Larson N, Kelso A 1971 A comparison of 19(4):597–604 osteopathic ﬁndings on hospitalized patients obtained He J 1998 Stretch reﬂex sensitivity: effects of postural by trained student examiners and experienced and muscle length changes. Journal of the American Osteopathic Rehabilitation Engineering 6(2):182–189 Association 70(10):1091–1092 Chapter 6 • Assessment/Palpation Section: Skills 193 Karaaslan Y, Haznedaroglu S, Ozturk M 2000 Joint Lewit K 1992 Manipulative therapy in rehabilitation of hypermobility and primary ﬁbromyalgia. Churchill Livingstone, Rheumatology 27:1774–1776 Edinburgh, p 116–121 Keating J, Matuyas T, Bach T 1993 The effect of training Lewit K 1999a Manipulative therapy in rehabilitation of on physical therapist’s ability to apply speciﬁed forces the locomotor system, 3rd edn. Physical Therapy 73(1):38–46 Heinemann, Oxford Keer R, Grahame R 2003 Hypermobility syndrome: Lewit K 1999b Manipulative therapy in rehabilitation of recognition and management for physiotherapists. Butterworth- Butterworth-Heinemann, Edinburgh, p 80 Heinemann, Oxford, p 81 Kelsey M 1951 Diagnosis of upper abdominal pain. Texas State Journal of Medicine 47:82–86 Journal of Orthopaedic Medicine 21:52–58 Kendall N, Linton S, Main C 1997 Guide to assessing Lewit K, Olanska S 2004 Clinical importance of active psychosocial yellow ﬂags in acute low back pain. 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Physiotherapy 81(3):127–138 2:53–57 Chapter 6 • Assessment/Palpation Section: Skills 195 Rosero H, Greene C, DeBias D 1987 Correlation of Uber-Zak L, Venkateshme Y 2002 Neurologic palpatory observations with anatomic locus of acute complications of sit-ups associated with the valsalva myocardial infarction. Therapy 79(6):591–599 Eastland Press, Seattle Selye H 1976 Stress in health and disease. McGraw-Hill, New of 5th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back York and Pelvic Pain, Melbourne, Australia, p 56–79 Shipley D 2000a Manipulation therapy for the van Wingerden J-P 1997 The role of the hamstrings in naturopathic physician, 2nd edn. Churchill Shipley D 2000b Manipulation therapy for the Livingstone, New York naturopathic physician, 2nd edn. Health For All Publishing, London Simons D 1993a Myofascial pain and dysfunction review.
Francis Lincoln duloxetine 30 mg with visa, London myofascial trigger point release and paradoxical relaxation training treatment of chronic pelvic pain in men cheap 20mg duloxetine amex. Journal of Urology 174(1):155–160 Conclusion Andersson G purchase duloxetine 30 mg amex, Lucente T, Davis A et al 1999 A The summaries of modalities outlined in this chapter comparison of osteopathic spinal manipulation with are far from comprehensive. In the next chapter constitutional Foundation models of manual medicine are explored. Assendelft W, Morton S, Yu E et al 2003 Spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain. Annals of Internal Medicine 138:871–881 Abbate G 2004 Chiropractic neck manipulation linked to woman’s death. Globe and Mail, Toronto, Ontario, Aust G, Fischer K 1997 Changes in body equilibrium January 17. In: Proceedings of National high velocity, low amplitude manipulative technique Conference on Chiropractic Pediatrics. 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Journal of Holistic Nursing Barnes M 1997 The basic science of myofascial release. Eastland Press, Seattle Brennan G, Fritz J, Hunter S et al 2006 Identifying subgroups of patients with acute/subacute ‘nonspeciﬁc’ Beal M 1985 Viscerosomatic reﬂexes review. Bronfort G, Assendelft W, Evans R et al 2001 Efﬁcacy of Traditional and biomedical concepts in holistic care: spinal manipulation for chronic headache: a systematic history and basic concepts. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological 14:69–78 Therapeutics 27(7):457–466 Bei Y 1993 Clinical observations on the treatment of 98 Brown B, Tissington-Tatlow W 1963 Radiographic cases of peptic ulcer by massage. Chiropractic Techniques 5(2):53–55 Position Paper on Naturopathic Manipulative Therapy. Bhole M 1983 Gastric tone as inﬂuenced by mental American Association of Naturopathic Physicians, states and meditation. Journal of Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh Physical Education 69:23–28 Butler D 1991b Mobilisation of the nervous system. Bishop E, McKinnon E, Weir E et al 2003 Reﬂexology in Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, p 104–105 management of encopresis and chronic constipation. Paediatric Nursing 15:20–21 Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, p 137 Blackburn J 2004 Trager® at the table – part 3. Journal Butler D, Gifford L 1989 Adverse mechanical tensions of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8(3):178–188 in the nervous system. Journal of Chiropractic Education 17:48–49 Caldwell C 1997 Getting in touch: the guide to new body-centered therapies. American the American Osteopathic Association 102(7):371–375 Academy of Osteopathy Journal 7(4):25–29 Chapter 7 • Modalities, Methods and Techniques 283 Cantu R, Grodin A 1992 Myofascial manipulation. Australian Journal stimulation as a treatment for urge incontinence and of Physiotherapy 49:223–241 associated pelvic ﬂoor disorders at a pelvic ﬂoor center: a follow-up study. Journal of the American Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation decreases Osteopathic Association 91(3):255–259 muscle activity during the stretch reﬂex in selected posterior thigh muscles. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation Clelland J, Savinar E, Shepard K 1987 Role of physical 9:269–278 therapist in chronic pain management. Hospital Medicine 109(1):78–80 Pharmacist 9:255–260 Chaitow L 1980 Neuromuscular technique. Thorsons, Cohen L, Warneke C, Fouladi R et al 2004 Psychological Wellingborough, p 72–73 adjustment and sleep quality in a randomized trial of Chaitow L 1994 Integrated neuromuscular inhibition the effects of a Tibetan yoga intervention in patients technique. Cancer 100:2253–2260 Chaitow L 2001 Modern neuromuscular techniques, Collins N, Teys P, Vicenzino B 2004 The initial effects 2nd edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh of a Mulligan’s mobilization with movement technique on dorsiﬂexion and pain in subacute ankle sprains. Manual Therapy 9(2):77–82 Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh Comeaux Z 2002a Facilitated oscillatory release. Chaitow L 2003 Palpation and assessment skills, 2nd American Academy of Osteopathy Journal 12(2):24–35 edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh Comeaux Z 2002b Robert Fulford and the philosopher Chaitow L 2005 Cranial manipulation: theory physician.
Because the disease process is specific for platelets discount duloxetine 30 mg without prescription, the other two cell lines (erythrocytes and leukocytes) are normal cheap duloxetine 60mg on-line. Also order 30 mg duloxetine with mastercard, because the thrombocytopenia is caused by excessive platelet peripheral destruction, the bone marrow will show increased megakaryocytes (platelet precursors). Understanding the risk factors helps the practitioner to establish a diagnosis and to determine how to interpret tests. For example, understanding the risk factor analysis may help to manage a 45-year-old obese woman with sudden onset of dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain following an orthopedic surgery for a femur fracture. This patient has numerous risk factors for deep venous throm- bosis and pulmonary embolism. The physician may want to pursue angiography Clinical Pearl ➤ When the pretest probability of a disease is high based on risk factors,even with a negative initial test, more definitive testing may be indicated. Thus, the num- ber of risk factors helps to categorize the likelihood of a disease process. A clinician must understand the complications of a disease so that one may monitor the patient. Sometimes the student has to make the diagnosis from clinical clues and then apply his/her knowledge of the sequelae of the patho- logical process. For example, the student should know that chronic hyperten- sion may affect various end organs, such as the brain (encephalopathy or stroke), the eyes (vascular changes), the kidneys, and the heart. Understanding the types of consequences also helps the clinician to be aware of the dangers to a patient. The clinician is acutely aware of the need to monitor for the end-organ involvement and undertakes the appropriate intervention when involvement is present. To answer this question, the clinician needs to reach the correct diagnosis, assess the severity of the condition, and weigh the situation to reach the appro- priate intervention. For the student, knowing exact dosages is not as important as understanding the best medication, the route of delivery, mechanism of action, and possible complications. It is important for the student to be able to verbalize the diagnosis and the rationale for the therapy. A common error is for the student to “jump to a treatment,” like a random guess, and therefore being given “right or wrong” feedback. In fact, the student’s guess may be correct, but for the wrong reason; conversely, the answer may be a very reasonable one, with only one small error in thinking. Instead, the student should verbalize the steps so that feedback may be given at every reasoning point. For example, if the question is, “What is the best therapy for a 25-year-old man who complains of a nontender penile ulcer? Therefore, the best treatment for this man with probable syphilis is intramuscular penicillin (but I would want to confirm the diagnosis). In the scenario above, the man with a nontender penile ulcer is likely to have syphilis. Knowing the lim- itations of diagnostic tests and the manifestations of disease aids in this area. There are four steps to the clinical approach to the patient: making the diagnosis, assessing severity, treating based on severity, and following response. Assessment of pretest probability and knowledge of test characteristics are essential in the application of test results to the clinical situation. There are seven questions that help to bridge the gap between the text- book and the clinical arena. He describes the discomfort as a severe, retrosternal pressure sensation that had awakened him from sleep 3 hours earlier. He previously had been well but has a medical history of hypercholesterolemia and a 40- pack-per-year history of smoking. On examination, he appears uncom- fortable and diaphoretic, with a heart rate of 116 bpm, blood pressure 166/102 mm Hg, respiratory rate 22 breaths per minute, and oxygen satu- ration of 96% on room air. Auscultation of the chest reveals clear lung fields, a regular rhythm with an S4 gallop, and no murmurs or rubs. Cardiac examination reveals an S4 gallop, which may be seen with myocardial ischemia because of relative noncompliance of the ischemic heart, as well as hypertension, tachycardia, and diaphoresis, which all may represent sympathetic activation. Know which patients should receive thrombolytics or undergo percuta- neous coronary intervention, which may reduce mortality. Occasionally, they are caused by embolic occlusion, coronary vasospasm, vas- culitis, aortic root or coronary artery dissection, or cocaine use (which pro- motes both vasospasm and thrombosis). The resultant clinical syndrome is related to both the degree of atherosclerotic stenosis in the artery and to the duration and extent of sudden thrombotic occlusion of the artery. If the occlu- sion is incomplete or if the thrombus undergoes spontaneous lysis, unstable angina occurs. If the occlusion is complete and remains for more than 30 min- utes, infarction occurs.
This will not only ensure that the workforce has up-to-date knowledge and skills to provide the best service to customers generic duloxetine 40mg with mastercard, but will also serve to boost morale and confidence duloxetine 30 mg low price. The implementation of these tools requires a high degree of sensitivity cheap duloxetine 30mg overnight delivery, objectivity and firmness on the part of higher management. It is a highly developmental mechanism and not a tool for dispensing discipline or perks. For the purpose of measurement, competence has been broken down into knowledge, skills and attitude, and incorporated into the performance appraisal mechanism. An appraisal exercise should be carefully planned and the assessment based on mutually agreed targets. Appraisals should be carried out periodically so that the organization can track the growth and development of a person over a period of time. Positive feedback and counselling will reveal any deficiencies or negative attitudes. Feedback and counselling should be considered as an aid to learning and development. It is important to see the whole picture and not to be distracted by the day- to-day needs and pressures of running a nuclear medicine service. Introduction Training in nuclear medicine requires a combination of general medical professional training and specific nuclear medicine training. Within a nuclear medicine service, the medical doctor, who is also referred to as a ‘nuclear physician’, plays an important role. Nuclear medicine is a multi- disciplinary practice and the training of medical doctors is critical to the performance of a nuclear medicine department. However, in most countries there is no dedicated academic facility responsible for the education that nuclear medicine doctors require. The responsibility of the nuclear medicine physician is to: —Define the patient’s and clinician’s reasons for the request or referral; —Determine and organize the appropriate tests and protocols; —Tailor the protocols to the needs and condition of the patient; —Assess and carry out interventions (physiological, pharmacological or mental stress related); —Adjust the study analysis and interpretation according to the clinical infor- mation; —Interpret the results and their clinical, biological and pathological implica- tions; —Hold follow-up consultations with the patient; —Ensure the safety of both the patient and staff; —Provide training (and education) for technical and junior medical staff. A practitioner in the field of nuclear medicine must possess a fundamental knowledge and a training in medicine. In addition they should preferably have a postgraduate qualification in nuclear medicine. Most countries in the world at present, especially developing countries, have no postgraduate training programme for medical doctors in nuclear medicine. In order to ensure an adequate nuclear medicine service, those responsible must recognize the need for well trained and specialized nuclear physicians. Training requires the following components: (a) Trained teachers who are professional nuclear medicine practitioners; (b) Doctors hoping to pursue a career in nuclear medicine; (c) An established syllabus; (d) Mechanisms for the supervision of trainers; (e) Mechanisms for the supervision and assessment of trainees. In addition, while some countries may set entry requirements for training, others may adopt a system of continuous assessment throughout the training course and/or a final assessment. Successful trainees are awarded with a final certificate, degree or diploma that is recognized by the government, local health authority and hospital as an assurance of specialist competence in nuclear medicine. General professional training Nuclear medicine specialists must have a sound understanding of general and emergency medicine, including resuscitation, surgery, gynaecology, paediatrics and psychiatry. Nuclear medicine could be regarded as the last refuge of the physician in a hospital since all hospital departments seek nuclear medicine services to a greater or lesser extent. A general professional training in nuclear medicine is offered to doctors who have obtained their qualifications and completed a requisite period, usually of a year, as a medical or surgical house officer before obtaining registration as a medical practitioner. This requires a minimum of two years in clinical posts approved by the national training authority. During this time, the doctor should be directly involved in patient care and gain broad experience in a variety of clinical fields. Ideally, at least three quarters of the time spent in such clinical posts should include experience in the admission and follow-up of acute clinical emergencies. A minimum of six months of this time should include experience in ‘unselected emergency care’, i. A further six month assignment to a department of radiology is recommended for nuclear medicine trainees who are not following a career in radiology. Unfortunately, there is an increasing tendency among national authorities to set very specific, narrow and even discriminatory requirements for entry into particular specialties. It is recommended that there should be a final examination to ensure that candidates have adequate knowledge and skills to practice nuclear medicine. Training paths The training period for postgraduate nuclear medicine starts four years after the completion of general medical training, either from an internal medicine background or following training in diagnostic radiology. There should be a general training in radiology of at least eight weeks during the four year period. However, if a radiologist who has completed a four year general radiology training to certification level wishes to undertake further training in nuclear medicine to certification level, then a two year period of specialist nuclear medicine training that must include radionu- clide therapy is recommended. The responsible training body is required to set standards both for training and for the supervision of trainees.