By L. Hassan. University of Advancing Technology. 2018.
In Nightingale’s case generic 400mg skelaxin, the time in her life skelaxin 400mg online, the concerns of the British people best word might be “ambivalence buy discount skelaxin 400mg. This stance is best equated with cultural femi- In other words, Nightingale, despite the clear nism, deﬁned as a belief in inherent gender differ- freedom in which she lived her own life, nonethe- ences. Women, in contrast to men, are viewed as less genderized the nursing role, leaving it rooted in morally superior, the holders of family values and nineteenth-century morality. A woman, Queen Victoria, presided over the In Nightingale’s mind, the speciﬁc “scientiﬁc” age: “Ironically, Queen Victoria, that panoply of activity of nursing—hygiene—was the central ele- family happiness and stubborn adversary of female ment in health care, without which medicine and independence, could not help but shed her aura surgery would be ineffective: upon single women. Both Nightingale and the queen saw This “practical duty” was the work of women, themselves as working through men, yet their lives and the conception of the proper division of labor added new, unexpected, and powerful dimensions resting upon work demands internal to each re- to the myth of Victorian womanhood, particu- spective “science,” nursing and medicine, obscured larly that of a woman alone and in command the professional inequality. The sci- Nightingale’s clearly chosen spinsterhood repu- entiﬁc grounding espoused by Nightingale for diated the Victorian family. Her unmarried life pro- nursing was ephemeral at best, as later nineteenth- vides a vision of a powerful life lived on her own century discoveries proved much of her analysis terms. Much of tion—one to be pitied, one of broken hearts—but her strength was in her rhetoric; if not always logi- a radically new image. She is freed from the trivia of cally consistent, it certainly was morally resonant family complaints and scorns the feminist collectiv- (Rosenberg, 1979). Nightingale, iconoclastic and bold, is perhaps clos- This appears to be a division that Nightingale sup- est to the decidedly masculine imagery she selected ported. Because this “natural” division of labor was to describe herself, as evidenced in this imaginary rooted in the family, women’s work outside the speech to her mother written in 1852: home ought to resemble domestic tasks and com- Well, my dear, you don’t imagine with my “talents,” plement the “male principle” with the “female. Ishan’t cost also subject to change and devaluation in an in- you nearly as much as a son would have done, or had creasingly secularized, rationalized, and technolog- I married. She did, however, succeed in providing women’s work in the public sphere, Every day sanitary knowledge, or the knowledge of establishing for numerous women an identity and nursing, or in other words, of how to put the constitu- source of employment. Although that public iden- tion in such a state as that it will have no disease, or tity grew out of women’s domestic and nurtur- that it can recover from disease, takes a higher place. Over 300 individual interviews that nursing became a science when Nightingale were subjected to content analysis; categories were identiﬁed her laws of nursing, also referred to as the named inductively and validated by four members laws of health, or nature (Barritt, 1973). Early writings of Nightingale, the authors report that despite their independent compiled in Notes on Nursing: What It Is and What derivation, the categories that emerged during the It Is Not (1860/1969), provided the earliest system- study bore a striking resemblance to nursing prac- atic perspective for deﬁning nursing. According to tice as described by Nightingale: prevention of ill- Nightingale, analysis and application of universal ness and promotion of health, observation of the “laws” would promote well-being and relieve the sick, and attention to physical environment. Meleis (1997), nurse scholar, does not Nightingale’s Notes on Nursing (1859/1992, p. None of her major activity and her deemphasis of pathology, empha- biographers present her as a theorist. She was a sizing instead the “laws of health” (as yet un- consummate politician and health care reformer. However, her underlying ideas continue to be cleanliness, quiet, and the proper selection and ad- relevant and, some would argue, prescient. The art of observation was identiﬁed as an case that nurses today continue to incorporate in important nursing function in the Nightingale their practice the insight, foresight, and, most model. And this observation was what should form important, the clinical acumen of Nightingale’s the basis for nursing ideas. As part of a larger how differently the theoretical base of nursing study, they collected a large base of descriptions might have evolved if we had continued to consider from both nurses and physicians describing “good” extant nursing practice as a source of ideas. The focus of this activities in nursing today is the tradition of nursing activity was the proper use of fresh air, Florence Nightingale. Research should be utilized through observa- dividual’s health: clean air, pure water, efﬁcient tion and empirics to deﬁne the nursing disci- drainage, cleanliness, and light. Nursing is both an empirical science and an Nightingale isolated ﬁve environmental art. Nursing’s concern is with the person in the en- health: clean air, pure water, efﬁcient vironment. Sick and well are governed by the same laws of The patient is at the center of the Nightingale health. The nurse should be observant and conﬁden- person as someone with psychological, intellectual, tial. Likewise, her chapter on “chattering hopes and advice” illustrates an astute The goal of nursing as described by grasp of human nature and of interpersonal rela- Nightingale is assisting the patient in his tionships. She remarked upon the spiritual compo- or her retention of “vital powers” by meet- nent of disease and illness, and she felt they could ing his or her needs, and thus, putting the present an opportunity for spiritual growth. In this, patient in the best condition for nature to all persons were viewed as equal. A nurse was deﬁned as any woman who had “charge of the personal health of somebody,” thus, putting the patient in the best condition for whether well, as in caring for babies and children, nature to act upon (Nightingale, 1860/1969).
Chomsky differentiates between the deep structure and the surface structure of an idea purchase skelaxin 400mg on-line. Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life order skelaxin 400 mg overnight delivery. Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language 400 mg skelaxin with amex. Critical evidence: A test of the critical-period hypothesis for second-language acquisition. A cross-language investigation of infant preference for infant-directed communication. Early referential understanding: Infants’ ability to recognize referential acts for what they are. Linguistic biases and the establishment of conceptual hierarchies: Evidence from preschool children. The emergence of Nicaraguan Sign Language: Questions of development, acquisition, and evolution. The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Structural plasticity in the bilingual brain: Proficiency in a second language and age at acquisition affect grey-matter density. Color categories are not universal: Replications and new evidence from a stone-age culture. Studying spatial conceptualization across cultures: Anthropology and cognitive science. The French psychologist Alfred Binet and his colleague Henri Simon developed the first intelligence test in the early 1900s. Charles Spearman called the construct that the different abilities and skills measured on intelligence tests have in common the general intelligence factor, or simply “g. Robert Sternberg has proposed a triarchic (three-part) theory of intelligence, and Howard Gardner has proposed that there are eight different specific intelligences. Although intelligence is not located in a specific part of the brain, it is more prevalent in some brain areas than others. Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to identify, assess, manage, and control one‘s emotions. However, tests of emotional intelligence are often unreliable, and emotional intelligence may be a part of g, or a skill that can be applied in some specific work situations. Women and men show overall equal intelligence, but there are sex differences on some types of tasks. These differences have at times led to malicious, misguided, and discriminatory attempts to try to correct for them, such as eugenics. Language involves both the ability to comprehend spoken and written words and to create communication in real time when we speak or write. Language can be conceptualized in terms of sounds (phonemes), meaning (morphemes and syntax), and the environmental factors that help us understand it (contextual information). Children learn language quickly and naturally, progressing through stages of babbling, first words, first sentences, and then a rapid increase in vocabulary. Noam Chomsky argues that human brains contain a language acquisition device that includes a universal grammar that underlies all human language and that allows generativity. Chomsky differentiates between the deep structure and the surface structure of an idea. Bilingual children may show more cognitive function and flexibility than do monolingual children. Both of the engines on flight 1539 had shut down, and his options for a safe landing were limited. Sully kept flying the plane and alerted the control tower to the situation: This is Cactus 1539…hit birds. When the tower gave him the compass setting and runway for a possible landing, Sullenberger‘s extensive experience allowed him to give a calm response: I’m not sure if we can make any runway…Anything in New Jersey? He had served as a flight instructor and the Airline Pilots Association safety chairman. Training had quickened his mental processes in assessing the threat, allowing him to maintain what tower operators later called an ―eerie calm. When the tower suggested a runway in New Jersey, Sullenberger calmly replied: We’re unable. The last communication from Captain Sullenberger to the tower advised of the eventual outcome: We’re going to be in the Hudson. The crew kept the passengers calm as women, children, and then the rest of the passengers were evacuated onto the boats of the rescue personnel that had quickly arrived. Captain Sullenberger then calmly walked the aisle of the plane to be sure that everyone was out before joining the 150 other rescued survivors (Levin, 2009; National Transportation  Safety Board, 2009). Affect is an essential part of the study of psychology because it plays such an important role in everyday life.
Dieting is also related to changes in weight in terms of weight variability discount 400mg skelaxin visa, the development of eating disorders and the onset and progression of obesity 400 mg skelaxin. Problems with a weight concern model of eating behaviour Although a weight concern model of eating and restraint theory have generated a wealth of research and provide an insight into overeating behaviour skelaxin 400 mg on-line, there are several problems with this theory: s Central to the boundary model is the traditional dualistic division between mind and body. The concept of separate biological and psychological boundaries suggests that the physical and psychological are separate entities which interact. However, although dieters, bulimics and bingeing anorexics report episodes of overeating, restricting anorexics cannot be accounted for by restraint theory. If attempting not to eat results in overeating how do anorexics manage to starve themselves? Developmental models emphasize the importance of learning by association and reward, cognitive models emphasize the role of beliefs and attitudes and weight concern research highlights the impact of body dissatisfaction and dieting on food intake. This book provides a detailed map of research relating to eating behaviour, obesity and eating disorders and addresses questions such as ‘Why do so many people not eat a healthy diet? For those interested, this book provides a detailed account of current theory and research. This chapter examines the development of the contemporary interest in exercise and describes deﬁnitions of exercise and ﬁtness. The chapter then examines the physical and psychological beneﬁts of exercise, describes programmes designed to increase exercise uptake and evaluates social/ political and individual predictors of exercise behaviour. The Olympics, Wimbledon tennis and football leagues were for those individuals who were the best at their game and who strove to win. The ‘Sport for All’ initiative developed by the Council of Europe, the creation of a Minister for Sport and the launching of the Sports Council suggested a shift towards exercise for everyone. Local councils were encouraged to build swimming pools, sports centres and golf courses. However, although these initiatives included everyone, the emphasis was still on high levels of ﬁtness and the recommended levels of exercise were intensive. Exercise is no longer for the élite, nor does it have to be at intensive, and often impossible levels. Government initiatives such as ‘Look after yourself’, ‘Feeling Great’ and ‘Fun Runs’ encourage everyone to be involved at a manageable level. In addition, the emphasis is no longer on ﬁtness, but on both physical and psychological health. Contemporary messages about exercise promote moderate exercise for everyone to improve general (physical and psychological) well-being. In addition, there is also an increasing recognition that exercise that can be included into a person’s daily life may be the way to create maximum health beneﬁts. The most sedentary members of the population are more likely to make and sustain smaller changes in lifestyle such as walking, cycling and stair use rather than the more dramatic changes required by the uptake of rigorous exercise programmes. This shifting perspective is illustrated by contemporary research on the beneﬁts of exercise. Aspects of exercise have been deﬁned in diﬀerent ways according to intention, outcome and location. Some researchers have diﬀerentiated between diﬀerent types of behaviours in terms of the individual’s intentions. Physical activity has been deﬁned as ‘any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure’. This perspective emphasizes the physical and biological changes that happen both automatically and through intention. Exercise has been deﬁned as ‘planned, structured and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical ﬁtness’. This perspective emphasizes the physical and biological changes that happen as a result of intentional movements. This distinction illustrates a shift in emphasis from intensive exercise resulting in cardiovascular ﬁtness to moderate exercise resulting in mild changes in health status. It also illustrates a shift towards using a deﬁnition of health that includes both biological and psychological changes. For example, Paﬀenbarger and Hale (1975) diﬀerentiated between occupational activity, which was performed as part of an individual’s daily work, and leisure activity, which was carried out in the individual’s leisure time. These deﬁnitions are not mutually exclusive and illustrate the diﬀerent ways exercise has been conceptualized. The results of a survey, in which men and women were asked about their exercise behaviour, are shown in Figure 7. They suggest that the four most common forms of exercise are walking, swimming, snooker/pool/billiards and keep ﬁt/yoga. Research has examined the possible physical and psychological beneﬁts of exercise. They reported the results from a longitudinal study which suggested that individuals with a weekly energy expenditure of more than 2000 kcals on exercise reported as walking, stair climbing and sports, lived for two-and-a-half years longer on average than those with an energy expenditure of less than 500 kcal per week on these activities. The possible reasons for the eﬀects of exercise on longevity are as follows: 1 Reduction in blood pressure: physical activity has an inverse relationship to both diastolic and systolic blood pressure. This eﬀect is particularly apparent in those who have mild or moderately raised blood pressure.