By N. Ateras. Goshen College.
It has an unusual portable Tonopen applanation tonometer is ideal for muscular arrangement; it is drawn across the eye by use in birds buspar 10 mg with visa. One study indicates that this instru- the pyramidal muscle originating in the posterior ment provided reproducible readings in birds with sclera and loops over the optic nerve through a sling corneal diameters over 9 mm order 10 mg buspar. A key point in the nique for sample collection should be used to increase anatomy of the avian orbit is the close proximity of the validity of the sample buy 10mg buspar with visa. The best diagnostic bacterio- the tightly packed orbit with the infraorbital diver- logic samples can be obtained by inserting a sterile ticulum of the infraorbital sinus (Figure 26. Si- swab moistened in transport medium into the upper nusitis and enlargement of this diverticulum will conjunctival fornix and rubbing it from side to side two or three times. The upper fornix is the preferred site for collecting culture samples because there is less con- tamination from environmental organisms than in the lower fornix. Conjunctival scrapings can be stained with a modified Wright’s stain for general cytology. A Giemsa stain can be used to detect chlamydial elemen- tary bodies (see Chapters 10, 34). Immature and signs of periorbital swelling, conjunctivitis and cockatoos of both genders have black irides. Moluccan Cockatoo, however, the male has a black iris and the female has a dark brown iris, and in most In most birds, including Psittaciformes, the globe is black cockatoo species and in the Goffin’s Cockatoo, anterio-posteriorly flattened, with a hemispherical there is no gender difference in eye color. It is rounded in some diurnal and Gold Macaws have a dark iris that lightens in birds and tubular in owls (Figure 26. The sclera the first two to three years and then turns yellow as immediately posterior to the cornea contains scleral the bird ages. African Grey Parrots have dark ossicles, and through its full circumference, the muddy-grey irides as young birds, which turn yel- sclera has a support of hyaline cartilage (Figure lowish-grey and then silver as they mature. The avian cornea is similar to that of mammals except that it is considerably thinner, and unlike Pupillary light reflexes do occur in birds but their mammals, it has a Bowman’s layer. The thickness of interpretation is complicated by the fact that voluntary the cornea varies depending on the size of the bird. Clinically, the with the posterior segment, with some anatomic dif- complete separation of the optic nerves prevents the ferences noted between species. The lens is The iris is thin and contains striated dilator and soft and is almost spherical in nocturnal birds, or has a constrictor muscles. Varying chromatophores create flattened anterior face in diurnal species including the different iris colors noted with age, gender and companion birds. In some white cockatoo species, capsule in the equatorial region, and can be separated for example, the iris is dark brown in the adult male from the center of the lens during cataract surgery. Recent work has shown that small, regular torsional movements of the eye sweep the pecten through the relatively fluid vitreous. Blood vessels in the pecten disperse a Lids and Periorbita serum filtrate that extends to the peripheral retina. Most species, large psittacine birds is periorbital disease secondary including Psittaciformes and Passeriformes, have in- to upper respiratory infection, particularly chronic distinct fovea. Ma- As stated above, the close proximity of the infraorbi- caws have a particularly distinct foveal area that can tal sinus to the orbit predisposes it to physical dis- be evaluated fundoscopically. Antibiotics distinguish colors and in most cases have excellent alone are rarely efficacious in these cases; flushing visual acuity. Because a bird’s sight is so important the sinus and, in some cases, more aggressive surgi- behaviorally, it is critical that ophthalmologic prob- cal debridement is required (see Chapter 41). This condition has been most frequently reported in macaws but may also occur with sinusitis in other avian species. As the disease progresses, ulcerative Avian poxvirus may cause lesions in or around the lesions on the lid margins and at the medial or lateral eyes in a number of species (see Chapter 32). The canthus develop; these can become secondarily in- initial changes include a mild, predominantly unilat- fected, giving rise to a mucopurulent discharge and eral blepharitis with eyelid edema and serous dis- transient ankyloblepharon (Color 26. An Nasal discharge, sneezing, crusted nares, dry oral infection can be confirmed through histopathologic membranes and palatine and choanal abscesses are identification of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclu- highly suggestive of primary hypovitaminosis A, par- sion bodies (Bollinger bodies) in scabs or scrapings of ticularly in Amazon parrots. The keratitis can be mild with corneal clouding or severe with ulceration that Lovebird Eye Disease progresses to panophthalmitis and rupture of the A severe and often fatal systemic disease with per- globe. Keratitis may lead to permanent corneal lid iocular lesions as the presenting sign has been re- scarring. Generalized depression is accom- lead to entropion, ankyloblepharon or deformities of panied by blepharitis and serous ocular discharge, the lid edge, resulting in keratitis from corneal abra- followed by hyperemia and edema of the periorbita sion or environmental exposure. Affected birds need corrective surgery (lid retraction) or can be are often attacked by enclosure mates and usually placed on life-long therapy with ocular lubricants. The disease is most commonly seen in the Peach-faced Many affected psittacine birds, particularly Ama- mutations, and it is in these birds that the lesions are zons, pionus parrots and mynah birds, have residual most severe. In one No definitive isolation of an infectious agent has been study, 46% of the Amazon parrots and pionus parrots achieved, but an adenovirus-like particle has been with poxvirus had post-infection ocular abnormali- demonstrated in renal tissue by electron microscopy. Treatment of poxvirus lesions should one case included proliferative inflammatory reac- include topical antibiotic ophthalmic ointments to tion of the subconjunctival tissue with lymphoid cell reduce the incidence of these sequelae.
Three physico-chemical test parameters pH buy buspar 5 mg without a prescription, electrolytes and total reducing sugar contents were tested trusted 5mg buspar. Results obtained were discussed and recommandation proposed for therapeutic effectiveness of oral rehydration honey mixture preparation buspar 5 mg line. The aminoacids present in the acid hydrolysate were identified by the 2 dimensional paper chromatographic techniques. Rehydration measure should be instituted as early as possible when life threatening dehydration state due to diarrhoea or severe fever is suspected or detected. Home- based fluids are usually given under such circumstance and thus chemical compositions of syrups (n=9), soft drinks (n=5), fresh fruit juices (n=3) and plant decoctions (n=7) were analysed by using published methods and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The local name Thin-baw-mahnyo possesses two different species of genus Catharanthus. The botanical name Catharanthus roseus was noted for Thin-baw-mahnyo (ahni) and Catharanthus alba for Thin-baw-mahnyo (ahpyu). The plants are cultivated for ornamental flowers as well as for indigenous medicinal purposes. Physicochemical characterization of the dried leaves owder was conducted using the standard analytical procedure described in physicochemical standard of Unani medicine and Myanmar Traditional Medicine Formulary. A triterpenoid compounds, ursolic acid was isolated and identified from ethanolic extract of dried leaves powder. Moreover, the quantity of total alkaloids in dried leaves powder was determined and observed to be 1. The main aim of this research work is to study some biological activities of Ipomoea batatas (L. The antimicrobial activity of various crude extracts of leaves powder and stem of Ipomoea batatas (L. From above data, crude extracts of leaves showed more significant zone of inhibition than those of stem. Therefore, the crude extracts of leaves may possess higher potency than the crude extracts of stem. The antioxidant activity of crude extracts and isolated compounds from leaves and stem of Ipomoea batatas (L. It was found that methanol extract of leaves and stem had the radical scavenging activity at 12. From acute toxicity test showed that aqueous and 70% ethanolic extracts of Ipomoea batatas (L. Aqueous extract and 70% ethanolic extract of leaves showed significant blood glucose lowering effect at the dose of 1. The percent inhibition of blood glucose lowering effect (peak effect) of aqueous extract were 1. The percent inhibition of blood glucose lowering effect of 70% ethanolic extract were 11. The percent inhibition of blood glucose lowering effect of standard glibenclamide was 63. From above data, 70% ethanolic extract exhibited more significant antihyperglycemic activity than aqueous extract at the dose of 1. Based on above investigation, it can be concluded that the aerial parts of Ipomoea batatas (L. The morphology and taxonomy of the vegetative and reproductive parts and anatomy of leaves have been studied. Since the study on chemical constituents present in it and experiment on pharmacological investigation of the plant growing in Myanmar have not been conducted yet, it has been decided to determine for its physico-chemical properties, as well as for its evaluation on hypoglycemia or diuretic activities. The research has revealed the pharmacognostical aspects and pharmacological properties of this plant. Phytochemical investigations on a flovonoid compound, sinensetin and a sterol compound, β-sitosterol have been conducted. Hypoglycemic activity of the watery extract of the plant has been evaluated for its pharmacological property. The antihepatotoxic substances, wedelolactone, demethylwedelolactone and luteolin, were identified from extracts of Eclipta alba (L. Apigenin, which has no antihepatotoxic activity, was also detected by thin layer chromatography. The plant powder and concentrated watery extract when tested on animal models were found to be non-toxic in mice even at 4g/kg and 8g/kg body weight; and found to have antipyretic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, analgesic activity, diuretic activity and induced uterine contraction. Than Lwin; Khin Chit; Thaw Zin; Ti Ti; Phyu Phyu Win; Mar Mar Myint; Aye Than; Paing Soe. However, these second line drugs are extremely expensive, comparably less effective and more toxic than the first-line drugs and a greater defaulter rate and non-compliance make these regimes impracticable. With the aim to overcome these problems, less expensive available western medicine in combination with Myanmar indigenous medicine which have been proven in vitro efficacy against M.
In addition to being eaten as a vegetable in Asia proven buspar 5mg, unripe bitter melon (Momordica charantia) has been used extensively in folk medicine as a remedy for diabetes generic 5mg buspar with mastercard. The blood-glucose- lowering action of the fresh juice or extract of the unripe fruit has been clearly established in modern scientific studies in both type 1 and type 2 cheap 10mg buspar otc. Bitter melon contains several compounds with conﬁrmed blood-glucose-lowering properties. Charantin, extracted by alcohol, is a hypoglycemic agent composed of mixed steroids that is more potent than the oral hypoglycemic drug tolbutamide. Bitter melon also contains an insulin-like polypeptide, polypeptide-P, which lowers blood glucose levels when injected like insulin into type 1 diabetics. Because it appears to have fewer side effects than insulin, it has been suggested as a replacement for insulin in some patients, although the likelihood that this application will ever be developed is extremely remote. Fortunately, taking as little as 2 ﬂ oz of the juice has shown good results in clinical trials. Health food stores may have bitter melon extracts, but the fresh juice is probably the best to use, as this was what was used in the studies. As its name implies, it is quite bitter, so we recommend that patients hold the nose and take a 2-ﬂ-oz shot of the juice. Research conducted at the University of Toronto’s Risk Factor Modiﬁcation Center has uncovered important properties of some ancient natural medicines. In a study at the center, 3 g whole powdered American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) root taken before each meal reduced postprandial blood glucose signiﬁcantly in type 2 diabetics. In a double-blind, controlled study, 36 non- insulin-dependent diabetic patients were treated for eight weeks with ginseng extract at 100 or 200 mg or with a placebo. Ginseng elevated mood, improved both physical and mental performance, and reduced fasting blood glucose and body weight. Fenugreek seeds have demonstrated signiﬁcant antidiabetic effects in experimental and clinical studies. The active principles are the special soluble ﬁber of fenugreek, along with the alkaloid trigonelline and 4-hydroxyisoleucine. Defatted fenugreek seed powder given to type 1 diabetics twice per day at a 50-g dose resulted in a signiﬁcant reduction in fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance test results. In type 2 diabetics, the addition of 15 g powdered fenugreek seed soaked in water signiﬁcantly reduced postprandial glucose levels during the meal tolerance test. In another study, however, 25 patients with type 2 were randomly assigned to receive 1 g per day of fenugreek seed extract or placebo capsules for 2 months. The group taking the fenugreek seed extract had improved blood glucose measurements (e. This ﬁnding indicates that there was a signiﬁcant improvement in insulin sensitivity. Onions (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) appear to have signiﬁcant blood-glucose-lowering action. Although garlic generally has more potent effects, onions can be given at higher dosages and the active compounds appear to be more stable than allicin. Graded doses of onion extracts (1 ml extract = 1 g whole onion) at levels sometimes found in the diet (i. The effects are similar with both raw and boiled onion extracts, indicating that the active components are probably stable. Preventing Nutritional and Oxidative Stress Diabetes is characterized by increased nutritional and oxidative stress. Individuals with diabetes typically have elevated levels of free radicals and oxidative compounds. They also greatly increase the inﬂammatory process by increasing the formation of inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein. One of the critical goals in nutritionally supporting individuals with diabetes is to ﬂood the body with a high level of antioxidant compounds to counteract the negative effects of free radicals and pro- oxidants. The implementation of this goal is achieved by using the recommendations given earlier, along with taking a flavonoid-rich extract and alpha-lipoic acid. Recent research suggests that ﬂavonoids may be useful in treating diabetes, as well as in preventing long-term complications. Flavonoids such as quercetin promote insulin secretion and are potent inhibitors of glycosylation and sorbitol accumulation, while ﬂavonoid-rich extracts such as bilberry and hawthorn have been shown to be helpful in diabetic retinopathy and microvascular abnormalities. Very Ginkgo biloba extract (24% 120– important in improving blood flow to the extremities (useful for neuropathy and foot ginkgo flavonglycosides) 240 mg ulcers). Grape seed extract or pine bark 150– Systemic antioxidant; best choice for most people younger than 50, especially if extract (>95% procyanidolic 300 mg retinopathy, hypertension, easy bruising, and poor wound healing exist. Green tea extract (>80% total 150– Best choice in the early stage of type 1 diabetes or if there is a family history of polyphenols) 300 mg cancer.
Older birds purchase buspar 10mg without prescription, especially of a bird is particularly critical when choosing a pair wild-caught adults quality buspar 5mg, are usually very difficult to tame cheap 5mg buspar otc. It should be noted that mu- tations in color are generally the result of continued Bird Maximum Average inbreeding. In selecting for particular color muta- Gouldian Finch unknown 4 tions (eg, lutino cockatiels), scant priority is placed Zebra Finch 17 5 on other important attributes, so that decreased dis- Canary 20 8 ease resistance, disorders, reduced longevity and Mynah 8 3 birth defects often result. This is most apparent when comparing the Rosella 15 3 different breeds of canaries and budgerigars. Cur- Eclectus Parrot 20 8 rently, show budgerigars are approximately twice the Galah 20 5 mass of their free-ranging conspecifics. Attempts to Bare-eyed Cockatoo 40 15 produce larger birds has also led to numerous unde- sirable characteristics including feathering that im- Sulphur-crested Cockatoo 40 15 pairs flight, interferes with normal ambulation, ac- African Grey Parrot 50 15 cumulates excrement pericloacally and protrudes Pionus parrot 15 5 across and sometimes into the cornea. Amazon parrot 80 15 Macaw 50 15 Longevity Conure 25 10 Longevity, the potential maximum duration of life for Grey-cheeked Parakeet 15 8 a species, has little relevance to exhibition or show Superb Parrot 36 6 bird breeders (who discard imperfect nestlings and older breeding birds) but should be of critical impor- Domestic pigeon 26 15 tance to the companion bird client. Some highly bred strains of birds may have life expectancies one-third Selected Species Recommendations to one-tenth the duration of “wild-type” or less highly The Grey-cheeked Parakeet, Dusky and Maroon-bel- inbred individuals of the same species. For example, lied Conures and Monk Parakeets are reputed to be it is believed that inbreeding has contributed to the relatively resistant to common diseases and are reduction in the life expectancy of cockatiels from a longer-lived than most cockatiels, budgerigars and record of 32 years to the present-day average of four lovebirds. When seeking a healthy companion bird scribed as quiet but playful; the conures are not as that has the greatest potential of reaching its full life quiet, yet they can be tame and affectionate; and the expectancy, clients should avoid highly inbred birds Monk Parakeet is considered docile, quiet and rela- in favor of the wild-type characteristics. Other bird species Currently, the available information on the popula- that are considered relatively quiet include the Ring- tion dynamics of free-ranging birds and those main- necked Parakeet, Pionus species, Hawk-headed Par- tained as pets is sparse. It is doubtful that the longev- rot, Caique, Dusky-crowned Conure, Senegal Parrot, ity for many companion bird species is known Jardines Parrot, Cape Parrot, Meyer’s Parrot, Red- because of a lack of scientifically derived diets and bellied Parrot and Brown-headed Parrot. An increase in longevity aviculturist or pet retailer and checking several ref- data will require that aviculturists and avian veteri- erences are well worth the effort. This is a frequent practice with ticularly those that are likely to be illegal imports Amazon parrots that enter the United States from (smuggled), should always be avoided. A veterinarian is well advised to seek legal advice in developing a form to be used as a certificate of exami- nation. The term “health certificate” should be Choosing a Healthy Bird avoided because it is impossible to certify “health. The ex- family are: pectations of a dealer or client regarding a veterinary examination may be quite different, and require- Obtaining the bird from a reputable breeder who ments and liabilities are likely to vary among coun- specializes in the particular species or genus of tries and states. Obtaining the bird from a reputable source who Clients should always be offered state-of-the-art di- works in close liaison with an avian veterinarian. It is important to note in a patient’s medical Obtaining a well adapted companion bird from an record what services were offered to a client and individual who is no longer able to provide for the which of those services were chosen, in order to pre- pet (due to age, moving, finances). Because the results Parameters that increase the likelihood of adding a of a single diagnostic test are not absolute, the prac- diseased, unhappy bird to the family are: titioner must combine the values reported by the Obtaining a wild-trapped bird. When all the data on a patient is collected and evalu- Obtaining a bird with an asymmetrical beak, ex- ated, the practitioner can state only that in his opin- cessively scaly legs, twisted digits, missing toes, a ion, there were no detectable abnormalities at the blocked nostril, slight swelling around the eyes, time of testing. If the bird’s enclosure is too large to move (in most situ- Identifying an overtly ill bird in a retail outlet should ations it should be), then clean butcher’s wrap or any caution the consumer to purchase a bird from an- non-absorbent paper should be placed on the bottom other source. All species dis- Aggression Golds and miniature macaws) cussed are susceptible to malnutrition, bacte- Cannibalism Polyomavirus rial infections, fungal infections and toxicities. Unless a species has a Coagulopathies particular propensity or a characteristic presen- Megabacteria Magpies, Australian tation, these problems are not mentioned. Heat stress Soft pliable beaks and bones in juveniles Lovebird pox (parathyroid gland dysfunction) Diseases mentioned may be common in some Epilepsy (idiopathic) Spiruroid throat worms localities or bird populations, whereas the Viral infections Scaly leg mite (Knemidokoptes-like) same diseases are rarely encountered in other Obstetrical problems (egg binding) localities or populations. Mynahs Bilateral clenched foot syndrome Hepatopathies Capillariasis Iron storage disease Cirrhosis of liver appointment. The Home Environment A clean, padded cardboard box or carrying crate with adequate ventilation is suitable for most short peri- ods of transportation. The bird should be maintained at an ambient temperature of 70° to 80°F and should Quarantine never be left unattended. Containers that have been previously used to transport birds must be cleaned If a client already has companion birds, any new and sterilized before reuse (see Figure 2. Carry- additions to the household should be isolated (quar- ing containers constructed of wood should be used antined) for six to eight weeks. During this quarantine period, the bird should be examined by a veterinarian and any identified prob- For safety, the bird should remain in some type of lems should be corrected. The enclosure should be clean grated into the post-purchase examination procedure and easy to service and should be constructed of a (see Chapter 6). Enclosures should be used to house the bird when no one is home and at night; therefore, the enclosure should be secure and Enclosures free of potential traps. Gaps between sections of the Enclosures for birds come in numerous shapes, sizes, enclosure can entrap toes, beaks or wing tips and styles and materials. Many are designed primarily to should be minimal in a well designed enclosure (Fig- appeal aesthetically to the client but fail dismally to ure 1.