By V. Murat. Southeast Missouri State University. 2018.
Early theories of personality 60 ml rumalaya liniment with mastercard, including phrenology and somatology buy 60 ml rumalaya liniment mastercard, are now discredited discount rumalaya liniment 60 ml fast delivery, but there is at least some research evidence for physiognomy—the idea that it is possible to assess personality from facial characteristics. Personalities are characterized in terms of traits, which are relatively enduring characteristics that influence our behavior across many situations. Psychologists have investigated hundreds of traits using the self-report approach. The trait approach to personality was pioneered by early psychologists, including Allport, Cattell, and Eysenck, and their research helped produce the Five-Factor (Big Five) Model of Personality. The Big Five dimensions are cross-culturally valid and accurately predict behavior. The Big Five factors are also increasingly being used to help researchers understand the dimensions of psychological disorders. A difficulty of the trait approach to personality is that there is often only a low correlation between the traits that a person expresses in one situation and those that he or she expresses in other situations. However, psychologists have also found that personality predicts behavior better when the behaviors are averaged across different situations. People may believe in the existence of traits because they use their schemas to judge other people, leading them to believe that traits are more stable than they really are. An example is the Barnum effect—the observation that people tend to believe in descriptions of their personality that supposedly are descriptive of them but could in fact describe almost anyone. The advantage of projective tests is that they are less direct, but empirical evidence supporting their reliability and construct validity is mixed. There are behaviorist, social-cognitive, psychodynamic, and humanist theories of personality. The psychodynamic approach to understanding personality, begun by Sigmund Freud, is based on the idea that all behaviors are predetermined by motivations that lie outside our awareness, in Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Freud proposed that the mind is divided into three components: id, ego, and superego, and that the interactions and conflicts among the components create personality. Freud also believed that psychological disorders, and particularly the experience of anxiety, occur when there is conflict or imbalance among the motivations of the id, ego, and superego and that people use defense mechanisms to cope with this anxiety. Freud argued that personality is developed through a series of psychosexual stages, each focusing on pleasure from a different part of the body, and that the appropriate resolution of each stage has implications for later personality development. Freud has probably exerted a greater impact on the public‘s understanding of personality than any other thinker, but his theories have in many cases failed to pass the test of empiricism. Freudian theory led to a number of followers known as the neo-Freudians, including Adler, Jung, Horney, and Fromm. Humanistic theories of personality focus on the underlying motivations that they believed drive personality, focusing on the nature of the self-concept and the development of self-esteem. The idea of unconditional positive regard championed by Carl Rogers has led in part to the positive psychology movement, and it is a basis for almost all contemporary psychological therapy. Personality traits of humans and animals are determined in large part by their genetic makeup. Personality is not determined by any single gene, but rather by the actions of many genes working together. The role of nature and nurture in personality is studied by means of behavioral genetics studies including family studies, twin studies, and adoption studies. These studies partition variability in personality into the influence of genetics (known as heritability), shared environment, and nonshared environment. Although these studies find that many personality traits are highly heritable, genetics does not determine everything. A friend had commented that he had a ―fat‖ stomach, and Robert began to cut down on eating. Then he began to worry that he wasn‘t growing enough and devised an elaborate series of stretching techniques to help him get taller. Robert scrutinized his face and body in the mirror for hours, finding a variety of imagined defects. He believed that his nose was crooked, and he was particularly concerned about a lump that he saw on it: ―A small lump,‖ said his mother. Around this time, Robert had his first panic attack and began to worry that everybody could notice him sweating and blushing in public. His mother told the radio host, At the time we were really happy because we thought that finally we actually knew what we were trying to fight and to be quite honest, I must admit I thought well it sounds pretty trivial. However, a lighthearted comment from a friend about a noticeable vein in his forehead prompted a relapse. When that didn‘t solve all his problems as he had hoped, he attempted to have the procedure reversed but learned that it would require complicated microsurgery.
Airway management 43 Suction Intubation bypasses non-specific mucus and cilial defences order rumalaya liniment 60 ml visa, while impaired cough reflexes from critical illness purchase rumalaya liniment 60 ml overnight delivery, antitussives and sedation order rumalaya liniment 60 ml overnight delivery, enable accumulation of lower respiratory tract secretions, reducing/obstructing airway patency (increasing work of breathing) and providing media for bacterial growth. Endotracheal suction can remove accumulated secretions, but can also cause: ■ infection ■ trauma ■ hypoxia ■ atelectasis Post-discharge surveys consistently identify patient anxiety and discomfort from suction (e. Puntillo 1990), and so it should never be a ‘routine’ procedure (Ashurst 1997); nurses should evaluate benefits against dangers. The changes made in endotracheal suction practice in the 1980s necessitate caution when reading older literature. Indications for suction include: ■ rattling/bubbling on auscultation ■ sudden increases in airway pressure ■ audible ‘bubbling’ from the back of the throat ■ sudden hypoxia (e. Disconnecting ventilation (inevitable unless closed-circuit suction systems are used) causes arterial desaturation, especially when patients are dependent on high levels of oxygen; preoxygenating all patients (3–5 minutes of 100 per cent oxygen) minimises risks. Although intended to remove bacteria, suction catheters can introduce/displace bacteria into lower airways. Respiratory pathogens sprayed into the environment through patients’ coughing or from suction catheters can infect others (e. Gowns, gloves, masks and goggles may protect staff, but efficacy of each needs evaluation, and their use delays suction procedures. Negative (suction) pressure damages delicate tracheal epithelium, causing possible ■ haemorrhage ■ oedema ■ stenosis ■ metaplasia. Negative pressure should be sufficient to clear secretions, but low enough to minimise trauma. Suction pressures, Intensive care nursing 44 usually measured in kilopascals (kPa) but sometimes in millimetres of mercury (mmHg), should be displayed on equipment. Intermittent release of negative pressure during suctioning has no advantage (Czarnik et al. Disconnection from ventilation and negative pressure from suction can cause hypoxia through ■ removal of oxygen supply ■ removal of oxygen-rich air from airways ■ alveolar collapse. Suction passes should therefore be as brief as possible (maximum 15 seconds), with rapid reconnection of ventilation. Nurses are recommended to hold their own breath during each pass: when they need oxygen, so will their patient. Hypoxia from bronchoconstriction (sympathetic stress response) usually follows endotracheal suction. Although Wood’s review (1998) found no proven benefit to routine preoxygenation, evidence is sparse, and failure to preoxygenate is probably more dangerous than routine preoxygenation. Many ventilators include time-limited control for delivery of 100 per cent oxygen; using these prevents inadvertent delivery of toxic levels continuing after stabilisation. If FiO2 is increased manually, it should be returned to baseline levels once PaO2 is restored. Catheters Removing oral secretions is easiest and safest with Yankauer catheters; angling the head to enable drainage of secretions into the cheek avoids trauma to the delicate soft palate. Endotracheal (soft) catheters should remove the maximum amount of secretions in the quickest possible time with minimal trauma. The practice of reusing disposable catheters for more than one pass seems to be based on anecdotal evidence that infection risks are not increased. Without substantive evidence, nurses reusing catheters should consider their professional accountability, and the legal liabilities of reusing equipment labelled by manufacturers as single-use (de Jong 1996). Using clean (rather than sterile) gloves for suction similarly appears based on anecdotal claims that infection rates are not significantly increased. Gloves of any sort protect (universal precautions) nurses, and clean gloves are both quicker to put on and cheaper; with gloved hands not touching catheter tips, infection risks appear small, but any substantive evidence to support this is lacking (Odell et al. Ventilation continues during catheter insertion and so catheters should be advanced more carefully to reduce trauma (passes should not be slowed so much that patient discomfort is increased). Concerns that they create reservoirs for microbial colonisation appear to be unfounded (Adams et al. Nurses’ concerns that closed circuit catheters may be more difficult to manipulate (Graziano et al. Closed circuit systems can be cost effective if they replace sufficient numbers of disposable items. Most manufacturers recommend replacement after 24 hours; Quirke (1998) found 48-hour changes safe and suggests that further research may support weekly changes; however, staff should remember their legal liability if flouting manufacturer’s recommendations. Widespread practice of saline instillation to loosen secretions has little support beyond anecdotal literature. Mucus is not water soluble and so will not easily mix with saline; encrustations on dentures can be difficult to remove after soaking overnight, and a few seconds contact with saline seems unlikely to significantly loosen airway encrustations. Ackerman (1993) found saline instillation reduced PaO2, possibly from bronchospasm or creating a fluid barrier to gas perfusion. However Ackerman’s methodology alternated use and non-use of saline in the same patients, ignoring possible late complications of consolidation through inadequate removal of mucus.
Deirdre Blanchfield discount rumalaya liniment 60 ml with mastercard, Assistant editor This publication is a creative work fully protected by all applicable Mark Springer rumalaya liniment 60 ml on-line, Editorial Technical Trainer copyright laws buy 60 ml rumalaya liniment free shipping, as well as by misappropriation, trade secret, unfair com- petition, and other applicable laws. Yarrow, Manager, Multimedia and imaging have added value to the underlying factual material herein through one content or more of the following: unique and original selection, coordination, Robyn V. Young, Senior editor, Imaging acquisitions expression, arrangement, and classification of the information. Robert Duncan, Senior imaging specialist All rights to this publication will be vigorously defended. Kenn Zorn, Product design manager Copyright 2001 Marie Claire Krzewinski, Cover design Gale Group Marie Claire Krzewinski and Michelle DiMercurio, 27500 Drake Rd. Melson, Buyer Tables by Mark Berger, Standley Publishing, Ferndale, Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Michigan The Gale encyclopedia of psychology / Bonnie R. Slap Dianne Daeg de Mott Jane Spear Jill De Villiers Laurence Steinberg Marie Doorey Judith Turner Catherine Dybiec Holm Cindy Washabaugh Lindsay Evans Janet A. This number repre- • See also references at the end of entries point the sents one-third more entries than the first edition. Almost terms is included to help the reader understand key 65% of the entries are entirely new or updated concepts. Almost everyone seems interested in understand- first looked at the stars to predict and control their des- ing his or her own behavior, as well as the actions of oth- tiny and the science of astronomy was born. Psychology is, by far, the most popular of the social ics was necessary to count and measure, and eventually and behavioral sciences and one of the most attractive to the physical sciences, such as physics, chemistry, and bi- those who are interested in knowing more about people ology, emerged. It has only been a bit over a centu- gy has been one of the most popular majors for over ry since scientists and philosophers turned their eyes three decades, and students are more likely to take an from the planets to people and tried to understand human elective course in psychology than one from any other behavior in a systematic, scientific way. Not surprisingly, psychology has also become a century, philosophers and physiologists began to exam- popular high school offering. How do individuals use their senses of Initially, psychology courses at the secondary school sight, hearing, and touch to make sense of the world? We are living in In the late second half of the 1800s, a number of times of dramatic social change. Each of us continually young North American men and a few women traveled faces new challenges about how we will make our place in to Germany to study with Wilhelm Wundt, who had es- the world. As the discipline of psychology matured, ad- tablished a laboratory and the first graduate program of justment courses gave way to substantive content courses study in psychology at the University of Leipzig in Ger- that offered not just psychology’s latest findings about de- many. They returned to teach psychology and train other velopmental and identity issues, but also featured those students in the major universities of this country with the more traditional areas of cognitive, experimental, physio- intent of quantifying individual differences and impor- logical, and social psychology. The advances in the scientific side lished a Psychological Clinic at the University of Penn- of psychology were paralleled by the remarkable growth sylvania to help children who were having difficulty in of counseling, clinical, and school psychology. To keep up with the rapidly expanding field, the Being a psychologist, he assumed that his new pro- newly revised second edition of the Gale Encyclopedia fession—dedicated to learning and memory—would of Psychology has added about a third more entries and help him assist children who were having trouble read- biographies. Coverage includes the key concepts on ing, writing, spelling, and remembering information. Clinical information is broadly plex, theoretical notions within the experimental labora- covered, noting the various psychological theories and tories, and he turned to schoolteachers and social work- techniques currently in use and the scientific evidence ers for practical advice. Biographical profiles of major figures in the field of psychology are included, ranging from the Thus began the long struggle between the scientific earliest historical pioneers to current clinicians. On the battle- experiments are valid and replicable (that is, others pur- field, clinicians were helping troops who were experienc- suing the same questions with appropriate methods ing “traumatic neurosis, ” originally called “shell shock” would find the same results). They sometimes feel that in the First World War and now known as post-traumatic clinicians, for example, use psychotherapy techniques stress disorder. When the soldiers returned home, they led that have not been proven to be useful and may even be therapy groups for wounded military personnel. The Veteran’s Hospitals, in The earliest psychologists worked primarily with chil- particular, needed well-trained personnel to provide men- dren, usually those who were delinquent or having trouble tal health services for their patients. They were particularly taken with assessing in- ence held in Boulder, Colorado established standards of telligence and translated a test developed by a Frenchman, education and training for clinical psychologists. They began testing soldiers recruited for the First internship and receive the Ph. According to their tests, they found almost half of newer of training are available for students who want to the young, white male recruits and some 80% of Eastern place more emphasis on practice and less on doing re- European immigrants to be “morons. In addition to university graduate programs, a think the uses of intelligence tests, especially because of large number of professional schools have been estab- opinions like that of journalist Walter Lippman, who rec- lished, often offering a Psy. D (doctor of psychology) de- ommended that the “intelligence testers and their tests gree. Currently, some 4,000 students graduate each year should be sunk without warning in the… sea. The over- denied entrance into this country, and intelligence testing whelming majority of these graduates go into clinical or laid the base for human eugenics laws that allowed individ- applied work, although changing conditions in the health uals who were found “intellectually unfit” to be sterilized. With the introduction of psy- A field as broad as psychology, which stretches from choanalysis into this country, people wanted to “adjust” the study of brain cells to that of prison cells, is an active, through self-examination and the probing of the uncon- argumentative, and exciting adventure that offers oppor- scious.
Client is no longer exhibiting any signs or symptoms of sub- stance intoxication or withdrawal purchase 60 ml rumalaya liniment mastercard. Client shows no evidence of physical injury obtained during substance intoxication or withdrawal buy rumalaya liniment 60 ml online. Traditional medicine as it is currently practiced in the United States is based on scientiﬁc methodol- ogy buy 60 ml rumalaya liniment visa. Traditional medicine is also known as allopathic medicine and is the type historically taught in U. The term alternative medicine has come to be recognized as practices that differ from the usual traditional practices in the treatment of disease. When prayer speciﬁcally for health reasons is included in the deﬁnition of alternative medi- cine, the numbers are even higher. More than $27 billion a year is spent on alternative medical therapies in the United States. Individuals who seek alternative therapy, however, are often reimbursed at lower rates than are those who choose traditional practitioners. Positive lifestyle changes are encouraged, and practitioners serve as educators as well as treatment specialists. Complementary medicine is viewed as holistic health-care, which deals with not only the physical perspective but also the emotional and spir- itual components of the individual. Tom Coniglione, former professor of medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, has stated, We must look at treating the “total person” in order to be more efﬁcient and balanced within the medical community. Even ﬁnd- ing doctors who are well-rounded and balanced has become a cri- terion in the admitting process for medical students. Medicine has changed from just looking at the “scientist perspective of organ and disease” to the total perspective of lifestyle and real impact/results to the patient. This evolution is a progressive and very positive shift in the right direction (Coniglione, 1998, p. In fact, restoring harmony and balance between body and mind is often the goal of complementary health-care approaches. Virtually every culture in the world has relied on herbs and plants to treat illness. At the root of Chinese medicine is the Pen Tsao, a Chinese text written around 3000 b. When the Pilgrims came to America in the 1600s, they brought with them a variety of herbs to be established and used for medicinal purposes. The new settlers soon discovered that the Native Americans had their own varieties of plants that they used for healing. Many people are seeking a return to herbal remedies, because they perceive these remedies as being less potent than prescrip- tion drugs and as being free of adverse side effects. They include the Council for Responsible Nutrition, the American Herbal Asso- ciation, and the American Botanical Council. The Commission E of the German Federal Health Agency is the group respon- sible for researching and regulating the safety and efﬁcacy of herbs and plant medicines in Germany. All of the Commission E monographs of herbal medicines have been translated into English and compiled into one text (Blumenthal, 1998). Until more extensive testing has been completed on hu- mans and animals, the use of herbal medicines must be approached with caution and responsibility. The notion that some- thing being “natural” means it is therefore completely safe is a myth. In fact, some of the plants from which prescription drugs are de- rived are highly toxic in their natural state. Also, because of lack of regulation and standardization, ingredients may be adulter- ated. There is a greater likelihood of unwanted side effects with combined herbal preparations. Table 23-1 lists information about common herbal remedies, with possible implications for psychiatric/mental health nursing. Toxic in large doses, Extracts from the causing dizziness, nausea, roots are thought to headaches, stiffness, and have action similar trembling. Cascara sagrada Relief of constipation Generally recognized (Rhamnus as safe; sold as purshiana) over-the-counter drug in the U. Echinacea Stimulates the immune Considered safe in reason- (Echinacea system; may have able doses. Fennel Used to ease stomach- Generally recognized as (Foeniculum aches and to aid safe when consumed in vulgare or digestion.