By N. Sancho. Concordia University, Irvine California.
It is thus possible that pathogens could obtain antibiotic-resistance genes from environmentally distributed super-resistant microbes subsisting on antibiotics trusted 5 ml fml forte. Regrettably buy 5 ml fml forte mastercard, the use of these wonder drugs has been accompanied by the rapid appearance of resistant strains buy 5 ml fml forte with mastercard. The onus is on academia to furnish information on the multifunctional aspects of microbial network interactions that will provide the discovery tools of the future. It has not only hindered our treatment of infections but also dramatically reshaped drug discovery, yet its origins have not been systematically studied. Soil-dwelling bacteria produce and encounter a myriad of antibiotics, evolving corresponding sensing and evading strategies. They are a reservoir of resistance determinants that can be mobilized into the microbial community. Study of this reservoir could provide an early warning system for future clinically relevant antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Thanks to these broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties, silver has been extensively used for biomedical applications and other environmental disinfection processes for centuries. Effect of antibiotic therapy on the density of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in the stool of colonized patients. Limiting the use of such agents in these patients may help decrease the spread of vancomycin- resistant enterococci. This bacterium is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that is associated with rare but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in premature and full-term infants. Triclosan exposure increases triclosan resistance and influences taxonomic composition of benthic bacterial communities. One notable change was a 6-fold increase in the relative abundance of cyanobacterial sequences and a dramatic die-off of algae within the artificial streams. Selection of cyanobacteria over algae could have significant implications for higher trophic levels within streams. Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug-resistant gonorrhoea in Europe. Clinical implications and treatment of multiresistant streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. The emergence of multidrug resistance among the latest generation of pathogens suggests that the discovery of new scaffolds should be a priority…Two factors exacerbate this supply problem by creating unique dis- incentives for antibiotic development. First, antibiotics are used in smaller quantities than other drugs…Antibiotics yield lower revenues than most drugs. The result is a quandary; Resistance is on the rise while antibiotic discovery and development are on the decline. Summary report on antimicrobials sold or distributed for use in food producing animals. While the manufacturers of these products want you to think triclosan protects you from harmful bacteria, it turns out that it may be doing more harm than good. Another undoubted advantage of extended-release formulation is improved patient compliance. Many antibiotics have short half life values and need to be administered frequently, which also contributes to patient incompliance. The limitation of their application is mainly caused by the high cost and unsatisfactory drug loading…[it is hoped that] ‘nanoparticle- based’ extended-release antibiotic delivery…will come to sight in the future. The potential role of concentrated animal feeding operations in infectious disease epidemics and antibiotic resistance. These have reduced the effectiveness of several classes of antibiotics for treating infections in humans and livestock. We also agree that all therapeutic antimicrobial agents should be available only by prescription for human and veterinary use. In Zika epidemic, a warning on climate change: Mosquitoes will thrive in a warming world. These include the spread of malaria into the highlands of eastern Africa, the rising incidence of Lyme disease in North America, and the spread of a serious livestock ailment called bluetongue into parts of Europe that were once too cold for it to thrive. That creature adapted long ago to live in human settlements, and developed a concomitant taste for human blood. Proceedings of the 12 meeting of the Association of Island Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean Curaivo (Netherlands Antilles). Outpatient antibiotic use in Europe and association with resistance: A cross-national database study. Antibiotic resistance is an emerging threat to public health: An urgent call to action at the Antimicrobial Resistance Summit 2011. We believe that the window for overcoming antimicrobial resistance is still open, but we must act decisively now – Australia cannot bury its head in the sand any longer and hope that the problem will just go away. The method, which extracts drugs from bacteria that live in dirt, has yielded a powerful new antibiotic, researchers reported in the journal Nature on Wednesday.
Tese courts discount 5 ml fml forte visa, comprised of multiple judges discount fml forte 5 ml on line, hear the initial appeal sought by parties dissatisfed with decisions from the district courts generic fml forte 5 ml without prescription. No testimony is heard in these courts; rather, an appointed panel of some of the appellate judges receives written arguments from each party citing the errors and mistakes that are alleged to have occurred in the original trial. Tis panel may request oral arguments from the attorneys, but testimony from witnesses is not heard. Te judges meet to discuss the case and render a written decision, which may uphold the original verdict, partially uphold the verdict, reverse the verdict, or order a new lower court trial in the case along with instructions to the district court on how or from whom testimony may be given. A party to the case at this level may, if desired, request that a larger panel of appeals judges rehear the case (ofen referred to as an en banc hearing), or may appeal the case to the fnal state court level—ofen known as the state supreme court. Similar to the original appeal, no testimony is heard, the justices receive only the written briefs (arguments) of the attorneys, and once again an oral argument may be scheduled. Afer discussion, the justices issue a written opinion on the case that constitutes the fnal state action. Te opinion may uphold the original verdict, partially uphold the verdict, reverse the verdict, or order a new trial in the case along with instructions to the district court on how or from whom testimony may be given. A party, as a fnal appeal, can request a rehearing by the state supreme court, an occurrence rarely granted. In some criminal cases, afer a defendant has exhausted his or her appeals in the state courts, he or she may appeal certain matters to the federal court system. Tese federal appeals can take years to conclude, as evidenced by some capital or death penalty cases. District Courts retain original jurisdiction for questions of federal law that arise within their respective district, of which there are currently ninety-four, including locations within the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. District Courts of Appeal, of which there are twelve, each usually encompassing all of the district courts in several states. Written arguments are made, oral arguments may be heard, but witness testimony is not heard at the appellate level. As in the state system, a group of judges is empanelled to hear and discuss each case, and a written decision is handed down. Once again, that decision can uphold, reverse, remand, or supplement the district court verdict. A rehearing Jurisprudence and legal issues 383 or an en banc hearing can be requested, or an appeal to the U. Supreme Court accepts fewer than two hundred appeals annually from across the nation. Each state has at the heart of its law a state constitution that can grant further rights to its citizens beyond those established in the U. Who then is to decide questions of law within a state, between citizens of difering states, and any conficts that might require a balancing of constitu- tionally guaranteed rights between the United States and a state constitution? In essence, matters involving the constitution, statutes, and regulations from a state or a political subdivision of that state afecting a citizen or citizens of that state (including crimes committed by anyone within that state) are resolved in the state court system. Similarly, cases involving federal criminal or other statutes and regulations (federal income tax, for example) are heard entirely within the federal court system. Civil matters involving citizens of diferent states may be heard entirely in the federal system, as well as matters that involve two or more state governments, or cases that involve disputes with federal agencies. Additionally, federal courts may hear cases alleged to involve a “federal question,” usually an allegation that a right guaranteed by the U. Although the federal courts can remand cases that are brought into their system back to state courts for defnitive action, cases usually remain in federal court. Ofentimes the fnal disposition of a state criminal case is decided by the actions of a federal court relative to whether or not the accused received a fair trial in accordance with the U. Prior to the wide- spread use of electronic documents, each appellate jurisdiction or each state judiciary would publish printed volumes containing the verbatim written decisions handed down. Over the years, the number of individ- ual volumes was reduced as courts and even states banded together with commercial publishing frms to complete this important task. Today, most appellate decisions are posted on the various courts’ own websites on the day of decision. However, the decisions are also “published” electronically in various media for distribution to law libraries, attorneys, and commer- cial publishers. An ability to interpret the shorthand will not only allow an individual access to the decision, but also impart knowledge as to which 384 Forensic dentistry court decided the case and, in some cases, whether or not further appeal is likely. Te most important piece of information is the Reporter—the title of the volume in which the case can be found. Tese are commonly abbreviated; for example, the Southern Reporter, Tird Edition, is written as So. Federal appellate cases are found in the Federal Reporter, abbreviated as F, with F.
Health psychologists are concerned with understanding how biology cheap fml forte 5 ml with amex, Health psychologists work with medical professionals in behavior discount 5 ml fml forte with amex, and the social situation clinical settings to promote better health fml forte 5 ml for sale, conduct research, Health psychology influence health and illness. There are a wide variety of career opportunities in these fields, generally working in businesses. These Industrial-organizational psychology psychologists help select employees, evaluate employee Industrial- applies psychology to the workplace performance, and examine the effects of different working organizational and with the goal of improving the conditions on behavior. They may also work to design environmental performance and well-being of equipment and environments that improve employee psychology employees. These psychologists study people and Most work in academic settings, but the skills of the differences among them. The goal is personality psychologists are also in demand in business— to develop theories that explain the for instance, in advertising and marketing. PhD programs Personality psychological processes of individuals, in personality psychology are often connected with psychology and to focus on individual differences. School psychologists work in elementary and secondary This field studies how people learn in schools or school district offices with students, teachers, School and school, the effectiveness of school parents, and administrators. They may assess children’s educational programs, and the psychology of psychological and learning problems and develop psychology teaching. Social and cross- This field examines people’s Many social psychologists work in marketing, advertising, cultural psychology interactions with other people. Topics organizational, systems design, and other applied Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. The goal is to understand the psychological factors that influence performance in sports, including the role of exercise and team Sports psychologists work in gyms, schools, professional Sports psychology interactions. Psychology in Everyday Life: How to Effectively Learn and Remember One way that the findings of psychological research may be particularly helpful to you is in terms of improving your learning and study skills. Psychological research has provided a substantial amount of knowledge about the principles of learning and memory. This information can help you do better in this and other courses, and can also help you better learn new concepts and techniques in other areas of your life. The most important thing you can learn in college is how to better study, learn, and remember. These skills will help you throughout your life, as you learn new jobs and take on other responsibilities. There are substantial individual differences in learning and memory, such that some people learn faster than others. But even if it takes you longer to learn than you think it should, the extra time you put into studying is well worth the effort. And you can learn to learn—learning to effectively study and to remember information is just like learning any other skill, such as playing a sport or a video game. You cannot learn well when you are tired, when you are under stress, or if you are abusing alcohol or drugs. Eat moderately and nutritiously, and avoid drugs that can impair memory, particularly alcohol. There is no evidence that stimulants such as caffeine, amphetamines, or any of the many ―memory enhancing drugs‖ on the market will help you learn (Gold,  Cahill, & Wenk, 2002; McDaniel, Maier, & Einstein, 2002). Memory supplements are usually no more effective than drinking a can of sugared soda, which also releases glucose and thus improves memory slightly. One active approach is rehearsal—repeating the information that is to be learned over and over again. Although simple repetition does help us learn, psychological research has found that we acquire information most effectively when we actively think about or elaborate on its meaning and relate the material to something else. When you study, try to elaborate by connecting the information to other things that you already know. If you want to remember the different schools of psychology, for instance, try to think about how each of the approaches is different from the others. As you make the comparisons among the approaches, determine what is most important about each one and then relate it to the features of the other approaches. In an important study showing the effectiveness of  elaborative encoding, Rogers, Kuiper, and Kirker (1977) found that students learned information best when they related it to aspects of themselves (a phenomenon known as the self-reference effect). This research suggests that imagining how the material relates to your own interests and goals will help you learn it. An approach known as the method of loci involves linking each of the pieces of information that you need to remember to places that you are familiar with. Then you could put the behaviorists in the bedroom, the structuralists in the living room, and the functionalists in the kitchen. Then when you need to remember the information, you retrieve the mental image of your house and should be able to ―see‖ each of the people in each of the areas. One of the most fundamental principles of learning is known as the spacing effect.
After the intervention purchase fml forte 5 ml fast delivery, only 8% of the tai c’hi group said that they feared falling order fml forte 5 ml without a prescription, compared with 23% before they had the training order fml forte 5 ml on-line. In other work led by Wolf it was concluded that there was no statistically significant reduction in falls compared with wellness education. It was suggested that tai c’hi does not begin to show a significant reduction in the risk of falling until after a number of months of regular participation. Fewer falls were observed in a subset of patients doing tai c’hi who had no history of fall fracture. Wolfson and colleagues found that several interventions to improve balance and strength among older people were effective. The possible reduction in falls following participation in a tai c’hi programme was evaluated in a group of active individuals between the ages of 70 and 92 years. Traditional Chinese medicine | 181 There are other areas in which tai c’hi may be of interest to older patients. There is some evidence that tai c’hi improves the range of motion of the ankle, hip and knee in people with rheumatoid arthritis. A study showed that tai c’hi did not improve people’s ability to carry out household chores, joint tenderness, grip strength or their number of swollen joints nor did it increase their symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, but people felt that they improved when doing the exercises and enjoyed it. It is also not clear how much, how intense and for how long tai c’hi should be done to see benefits. No difference in balance, flexibility or the number of falls was observed between intervention and controls after 12 months. Based on qualitative theories and intersubjective methods, it involves predictions and therapies shown to be more accurate and effective than those of modern 182 | Traditional medicine medicine in fields from physiology and pharmacology to neuroscience, mind/body medicine and positive health. During the following century several physicians from India reinforced the teachings. Other influences came from Persian (Unani), Greek and Chinese medical systems, and it continues to be practised in Tibet, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Ladakh, Siberia, China and Mongolia, as well as more recently in parts of Europe and North America. It embraces the traditional Buddhist belief that all illness ultimately results from the ‘three poisons’ of the mind: ignorance, attachment and aversion. Tibetan medical theory states that it is necessary to maintain balance in the body’s three principles of function. The imbalances in an individual are revealed by a combination of reported symptoms, pulse diagnosis, tongue diagnosis, and urine analysis. The overall physical appearance of the person and information about their daily habits, and consideration of seasonal influences also contribute to the analysis. The Tibetan pulse diagnosis appears to be derived from the Chinese system, and is taken at the same artery of each wrist, but the method of feeling the pulse and the interpretations differ. Tongue diagnosis is simplified compared with the Chinese system (long disorders are characterised by red and dry tongue, chiba disorders by a yellowish tongue coating, and peigen disorders by a greyish and sticky coating with a smooth and moist texture). Urine analysis is unique to the Tibetan system and may have been introduced from Persia. Physicians inspect the colour, amount of vapour, sediment, smell and characteristics of the foam generated upon Traditional Chinese medicine | 183 stirring, relying on the first urine excreted in the morning. The modern materia medica of Tibet is derived from the book Jingzhu Bencao (The Pearl Herbs), published in 1835 by Dumar Danzhen- pengcuo. The text included 2294 materials, of which 1006 are of plant origin, 448 of animal origin and 840 minerals. The heavier reliance on minerals and animals than on plants, compared with other traditional medical traditions, can readily be understood for a country at such high altitude which is very rocky and supports only small areas of plant growth over much of the terrain. About one-third of the medicinal materials used in Tibetan formulae are unique to the Tibetan region (including the Himalayan area in bordering countries), whereas the other two-thirds of the materials are obtained from India and China. Although Tibetan herbal medicine includes the use of decoctions and powders, for the most part Tibetan doctors utilise pills that are usually made from a large number of herbs (typically 8–25 ingredients). Pills have the advantage of being easy to use and they can be prepared in advance at a medical facility where all the ingredients are gathered together. Due to the vast distances, rough terrain and limited development of Tibet, it was not possible to have the broad range of ingredients available to individual doctors who might compound formulae for decoction, as was often done in Figure 6. Instead, a relatively small variety of pills, prepared at central facili- ties, would be carried by the doctors to their patients. For many doctors, a collection of about two dozen principal formulae would have to suffice. In Lhasa, where there is a large manufacturing facility rivalling pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities in the west (Figure 6. In general, Tibetan remedies emphasise the use of spicy (acrid), aromatic and warming herbs. The climate has a substantial influence on these choices: the high altitude of Tibet means that cold and windy conditions prevail. Ayurvedic medicine relies heavily on spicy herbs for stimulating the digestive system functions, which is understood to be the key to health.
Marrow produces three types of blood cells: erythrocytes (red cells) generic fml forte 5 ml with mastercard, leukocytes (white cells) purchase fml forte 5 ml overnight delivery, and thrombocytes (platelets) buy fml forte 5 ml overnight delivery. Most of these are formed in red bone marrow, although some types of white blood cells are pro- duced in fat-rich yellow bone marrow. In cases of severe blood loss, the body can convert yellow marrow back to red marrow in order to increase blood cell production. If you hesitated to choose “all of hemostasis, which is the stoppage the above,” ask yourself this: If you of bleeding or blood flow. Besides support and protection, the skeleton serves other important functions, including a. Divide different body areas Chapter 5: A Scaffold to Build On: The Skeleton 63 Boning Up on Classifications, Structures, and Ossification Adult bones are composed of 30 percent protein (called ossein), 45 percent minerals (including calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium), and 25 percent water. Mineral in the bones increases with age, causing them to become more brittle and easily fractured. Various types of bone make up the human skeleton, but fortunately for memorization purposes, bone type names match what the bones look like. They are as follows: Long bones, like those found in the arms and legs, form the weight-bearing part of the skeleton. Short bones, such as those in the wrists (carpals) and ankles (tarsals), have a blocky structure and allow for a greater range of motion. Flat bones, such as the skull, sternum, scapulae, and pelvic bones, shield soft tissues. Irregular bones, such as the mandible (jawbone) and vertebrae, come in a vari- ety of shapes and sizes suited for attachment to muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Irregular bones include seed-shaped sesamoid bones found in joints such as the patella, or kneecap. Unfortunately for students of bone structures, there’s no easy way to memorize them. So brace yourself for a rapid summary of what your textbook probably goes into in much greater detail. Compact bone is a dense layer made up of structural units, or lacunae, arranged in concentric circles called Haversian systems (also referred to in short as osteons), each of which has a central, microscopic Haversian canal. A perpendicular system of canals, called Volkmann’s canals, penetrate and cross between the Haversian systems. Compact bone tissue is thick in the shaft and tapers to paper thinness at the ends of the bones. The bulbous ends of each long bone, known as the epiphyses (or singularly as an epiphy- sis), are made up of spongy bone or cancellous bone tissue covered by a thin layer of compact bone. The diaphysis, or shaft, contains the medullary cavity and blood cell–producing marrow. A membrane called the periosteum covers the outer bone to provide nutrients and oxygen, remove waste, and connect with ligaments and tendons. Bones grow through the cellular activities of osteoblasts on the surface of the bone, which produce layers of mature bone cells called osteocytes. Osteoclasts are cells that function in the developing fetus to absorb cartilage as ossification occurs and function in adult bone to break down and remove spent bone tissue. There are two types of ossification, which is the process by which softer tissues harden into bone. Both types rely on a peptide hormone produced by the thyroid gland, calci- tonin, which regulates metabolism of calcium, the body’s most abundant mineral. The two types of ossification are Endochondral or intracartilaginous ossification: Occurs when mineral salts, particularly calcium and phosphorus, calcify along the scaffolding of cartilage formed in the developing fetus beginning about the fifth week after conception. The absence of any one of these sub- stances causes a child to have soft bone, called rickets. Next, the blood supply entering the cartilage brings osteoblasts that attach themselves to the cartilage. As the primary center of ossification, the diaphysis of the long bone is the first to form spongy bone tissue along the cartilage, followed by the epiphyses, which form the secondary centers of ossification and are separated from the diaphysis by a layer of uncalcified cartilage called the epiphyseal plate where all growth in bone length occurs. Compact bone tissue covering the bone’s surface is pro- duced by osteoblasts in the inner layer of the periosteum, producing growth in diameter. Intramembranous ossification: Occurs not along cartilage but instead along a template of membrane, as the name implies, primarily in compact flat bones of the skull that don’t have Haversian systems. The skull and mandible (lower jaw) of the fetus are first laid down as a membrane. Osteoblasts entering with the blood supply attach to the membrane, ossifying from the center of the bone out- ward. The edges of the skull’s bones don’t completely ossify to allow for molding of the head during birth. Instead, six soft spots, or fontanels, are formed: one frontal or anterior, two sphenoidal or anterolateral, two mastoidal or posterolat- eral, and one occipital or posterior.
In severe cases generic fml forte 5 ml visa, aggressive treatment is necessary to control the growth and destroy the microbial quickly purchase fml forte 5 ml without prescription. Information about how long an interval should occur between the infusion of different antibiotics should be obtained from the pharmacy or the drug insert discount 5 ml fml forte otc. The following nursing diagnoses can be used for patients who are taking antibiotics: • Risk of infection related to treatment failure or superinfection. They are also at risk for having the following collaborative problems: • Sepsis • Ototoxicity (ears) • Blood dyscrasias • Nephrotoxicity (kidney) It is critical that the patient be given information on the management of his or her condition. These instructions include: • Take all the medication even after the symptoms subside. Also provide the patient with a telephone number to call if the patient has questions about these effects. It was discovered in 1940 and remains the most effective—and least toxic—antimicrobial drug. Penicillin weakens the cell wall of a bacteria result- ing in the rupture and destruction of a cell, which is called lysis. Penicillin is most active against gram-positive bacteria and some gram- negative bacteria. However, it isn’t active against bacteria that contain enzymes that destroy penicillin. Extended-spectrum Besides route, dose, and time, drugs are also characterized by pregnancy cate- gory, protein-binding, and half-life. Pregnancy category indicates if the drug has been tested using pregnant women and how safe the drug might be if used during pregnancy. Penicillin is categorized by its usefulness against bacterial enzymes capable of destroying the drug. Four different classifications of antibiotics exist that contain the beta-lactam ring and are more active against gram-negative cell wall organisms and decrease its susceptibility to enzymes that inactivate the antibiotic. The percent of pro- tein binding is the amount of drug that can’t be used until it is released when the free drug or the amount not bound to protein is excreted from the body. The category appears at the top of the table if the value of the category applies to all the drugs in a table, otherwise the category appears beneath the name of the drug in the table. However, food doesn’t have any effect on amoxicillin, amoxicillin and clavulanate, and bacampicillin. Before penicillin is administered, the patient must be assessed for a number of conditions. An allergic reaction to penicillin can be anywhere from a mild rash to anaphylactic shock and death. Furthermore, don’t administer penicillin to patients who have: • A tendency to bleed. The combination of drugs may increase the patient’s potassium level (hyperkalemia) and therefore require that the patient’s serum potassium levels be carefully monitored while the patient receives penicillin. There is an increased risk of bleeding when administering high doses of par- enteral carbenicillin or ticarcillin as these drugs inhibit platelet aggregation. These penicillins also increase the risk for severe bleeding if given with throm- bolytic agents such as streptokinase. Similarly, the use of penicillin might decrease the effectiveness of estrogen contained in contraceptives. Two other drugs affected by penicillin are methotrexate (Folex) and probenecid (Benemid). There is a decrease in the body’s ability to clear methotrexate when penicillin is present. Probenecid decreases renal secretion of penicillin resulting in an increase of the serum level of penicillin. Penicillin, Nursing Diagnosis, and Collaborative Problems A patient who is receiving penicillin may experience one or more conditions that require intervention. Here are the common nursing diagnoses that are related to a patient who is receiving penicillin. Generally, healthy patients can expect to see some improvement in the infection within 48 hours. They should be instructed to return to or contact the prescriber if symptoms worsen or do not improve somewhat in 48 hours. In addition to information described for generic antibiotics, female patients should be informed that penicillin can interfere with the effectiveness of birth control pills that contain estrogen. It is recommended that females use alterna- tive forms of birth control while being treated with penicillin. Do not administer cephalosporins to patients who have had a serious reaction to penicillin such as anaphylaxis. Prescribers use cephalosporins to combat a wide variety of infections and typ- ically use it as a prophylaxis to prevent a bacterial infection to occur during or after surgery. Cephalosporins also have side effects which include diarrhea, abdominal cramps or distress, oral and/or vaginal candidiasis, rash, pruritis, redness, or edema. There is also an increase of bleeding and bruising with four commonly pre- scribed cephalosporins: cefamandole, cefmetazole, cefoperazone, and cefotetan.
It is a test used with all age groups to human behavior by observing the behavior of rats in a help identify possible learning disabilities buy fml forte 5 ml fast delivery, neurological maze order fml forte 5 ml visa. Skinner even wrote a novel quality 5 ml fml forte, Walden Two, about a disorders, mental retardation, or developmental delay. Utopian society where human behavior is governed to- Test results also provide information about specific abili- tally by self-interested decisions based on increasing ties, including motor coordination, memory, and organi- pleasure. The test-taker is given a series of nine designs, many to believe that behaviorism could indeed produce each on a separate card, and asked to reproduce them on such a society. The test is In the 1950s, however, the popularity of behaviorism scored by professionals who consider a variety of fac- began to decline. The first sustained attack on its tenets tors, including form, shape, pattern, and orientation on was made by Noam Chomsky (1928-), a renowned lin- the page. Other psychologists soon began to question the role of Further Reading cognition in behavior. Today, many psychologists debate the extent to which cognitive learning and behavioral learning affect the development of personality. See also Behavior modification; Behavior therapy Bestiality Further Reading See Paraphilias Donahoe, John W. Biology and Human Behavior: The Neu- Austrian-born American psychologist known for his rological Origins of Individuality. Children of the Dream (1969) an- alyzes communal childrearing methods on an Israeli kib- butz and their implications for American family life. The Uses of Enchantment (1976) argues for the importance of fairy tales in a child’s development. Bettelheim’s later books include On Learning to Read: The Child’s First Fascination with Meaning (1981) and Freud and Man’s Soul (1982). A full professor at the University of Chica- go from 1952, Bettelheim retired from both teaching and directorship of the Orthogenic School in 1973. Follow- ing the death of his wife in 1984 and after suffering a stroke in 1987, Bettelheim committed suicide in 1990. Bilingualism/Bilingual education Use of a language other than English in public school classrooms. The 1970s saw record levels of im- Chicago, and then an associate professor at Rockford migration, bringing an estimated 4 million legal and 8 College from 1942 to 1944. To accom- modate this dramatic surge in the nation’s population of In 1943, Bettelheim gained widespread recognition foreign language speakers, language assistance has been for his article, “Individual and Mass Behavior in Ex- mandated on the federal, state, and local levels in areas treme Situations,” a study of human adaptability based ranging from voting and tax collection to education, so- on his concentration camp experiences. Altogether, over 300 been both lauded and criticized—of unconditionally ac- languages are spoken in the United States. Love Is Not Enough (1950), Tru- ants from Life (1954), and The Empty Fortress (1967) are Organized opposition to bilingualism, which collec- based on his work at the Orthogenic School. The In- tively became known as the English-Only movement, formed Heart (1960) deals with Bettelheim’s concentra- began in the 1980s. Hayakawa of Cali- teachers also help the students improve their skills in fornia introduced a constitutional amendment to make their native language. Two influential the students’ native languages not only to teach them the English-Only lobbying groups were formed: U. Eng- standard curriculum but also for special classes about lish, in 1983, and English First, in 1986. Two-way the passage of Proposition 63, English became the offi- or dual language programs enroll students from different cial language of California. By the mid-1990s, 22 states backgrounds with the goal of having all of them become had passed similar measures. For House of Representatives, by a margin of 259-169, example, Spanish-speaking children may learn English passed a bill to make English the official language of the while their English-speaking classmates learn Spanish. They accuse school systems of continu- fire is bilingual education, which costs taxpayers an esti- ing to promote bilingual programs to protect the jobs of mated $200 million a year in federal funds and billions of bilingual educators and receive federal funding allocated dollars in state and local expenditures. As evidence of this charge, they cite tion programs, which allow students to pursue part of barriers placed in the way of parents who try to remove their study in their first language and part in English, their children from bilingual programs. The constitu- in New York City have claimed that their children are tionality of bilingual education was upheld in a 1974 being railroaded into bilingual programs by a system that Supreme Court ruling affirming that the city of San Fran- requires all children with Spanish surnames, as well as cisco had discriminated against 18,000 Chinese-Ameri- children of any nationality who have non-English-speak- can students by failing to make special provisions to help ing family members, to take a language proficiency them overcome the linguistic barriers they faced in exam. However, the court did not specify what these quired to enroll in bilingual classes even if English is the provisions should be, and educators have evolved several primary language spoken at home. Critics of bilingual in- different methods of instruction for students with first struction also cite a 1994 New York City study that re- languages other than English. English, and the students are expected to pick up the lan- In spite of the criticism it has aroused, bilingual edu- guage through intensive exposure. Defend- gual, the students may be allowed to ask questions in ers cite a 1991 study endorsed by the National Academy their native language, but the teacher is supposed to an- of Sciences stating that children who speak a foreign lan- swer them in English. A later study, con- ual approach to mastering English, using it in conjunction ducted at George Mason University, tracked 42,000 chil- with the student’s first language.