By A. Ronar. Marist College.
A single occurrence of transient aplastic anemia (pure red cell aplasia) and two occurrences of hemolytic anemia following Rituxan therapy occurred during the single-arm studies buy generic ibuprofen 400mg on line. Prolonged neutropenia is defined as Grade 3-4 neutropenia that has not resolved between 24 and 42 days after the last dose of study treatment discount ibuprofen 400 mg with mastercard. Late-onset neutropenia is defined as Grade 3-4 neutropenia starting at least 42 days after the last treatment dose purchase 400mg ibuprofen overnight delivery. In patients who did not have prolonged neutropenia, the frequency of late-onset neutropenia was 14. In patients who did not have prolonged neutropenia, the frequency of late-onset neutropenia was 38. In these single-arm Rituxan studies, bronchiolitis obliterans occurred during and up to 6 months after Rituxan infusion. In Study 5, detailed safety data collection was limited to serious adverse reactions, Grade ≥ 2 infections, and Grade ≥ 3 adverse reactions. In patients receiving Rituxan as single-agent maintenance therapy following Rituxan plus chemotherapy, infections were reported more frequently compared to the observation arm (37% vs. Grade 3-4 adverse reactions occurring at a higher incidence (≥ 2%) in the Rituxan group were infections (4% vs. Neutropenia was the only Grade 3 or 4 adverse reaction that occurred more frequently (≥2%) in the Rituxan arm compared with those who received no further therapy (4% vs. Detailed safety data collection in these studies was primarily limited to Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions and serious adverse reactions. In Study 8, a review of cardiac toxicity determined that supraventricular arrhythmias or tachycardia accounted for most of the difference in cardiac disorders (4. Detailed safety data collection in Study 11 was limited to Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions and serious adverse reactions. Infusion-related adverse reactions were defined by any of the following adverse events occurring during or within 24 hours of the start of infusion: nausea, pyrexia, chills, hypotension, vomiting, and dyspnea. Among all exposed patients, adverse reactions reported in greater than 10% of patients include infusion-related reactions, upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, urinary tract infection, and bronchitis. In placebo-controlled studies, patients received 2 x 500 mg or 2 x 1000 mg intravenous infusions of Rituxan or placebo, in combination with methotrexate, during a 24-week period. From these studies, 938 patients treated with Rituxan (2 x 1000 mg) or placebo have been pooled (see Table 2). Adverse reactions reported in ≥ 5% of patients were hypertension, nausea, upper respiratory tract infection, arthralgia, pyrexia and pruritus (see Table 2). The rates and types of adverse reactions in patients who received Rituxan 2 x 500 mg were similar to those observed in patients who received Rituxan 2 x 1000 mg. The incidence of adverse reactions during the 24-hour period following the second infusion, Rituxan or placebo, decreased to 11% and 13%, respectively. Acute infusion reactions (manifested by fever, chills, rigors, pruritus, urticaria/rash, angioedema, sneezing, throat irritation, cough, and/or bronchospasm, with or without associated hypotension or hypertension) were experienced by 27% of Rituxan-treated patients following their first infusion, compared to 19% of placebo-treated patients receiving their first placebo infusion. The incidence of these acute infusion reactions following the second infusion of Rituxan or placebo decreased to 9% and 11%, respectively. Serious acute infusion reactions were experienced by <1% of patients in either treatment group. Acute infusion reactions required dose modification (stopping, slowing, or interruption of the infusion) in 10% and 2% of patients receiving rituximab or placebo, respectively, after the first course. The proportion of patients experiencing acute infusion reactions decreased with subsequent courses of Rituxan. The administration of intravenous glucocorticoids prior to Rituxan infusions reduced the incidence and severity of such reactions, however, there was no clear benefit from the administration of oral glucocorticoids for the prevention of acute infusion reactions. Patients in clinical studies also received antihistamines and acetaminophen prior to Rituxan infusions. Infections In the pooled, placebo-controlled studies, 39% of patients in the Rituxan group experienced an infection of any type compared to 34% of patients in the placebo group. The most common infections were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, bronchitis, and sinusitis. The incidence of serious infections was 2% in the Rituxan-treated patients and 1% in the placebo group. Rates of serious infection remained stable in patients receiving subsequent courses. Cardiac Adverse Reactions In the pooled, placebo-controlled studies, the proportion of patients with serious cardiovascular reactions was 1. Hypophosphatemia and hyperuricemia In the pooled, placebo-controlled studies, newly-occurring hypophosphatemia (<2. The majority of the observed hypophosphatemia occurred at the time of the infusions and was transient. Most of the patients who received additional courses did so 24 weeks or more after the previous course and none were retreated sooner than 16 weeks. The rates and types of adverse reactions reported for subsequent courses of Rituxan were similar to rates and types seen for a single course of Rituxan. The primary analysis was at the end of the 6 month remission induction period and the safety results for this period are described below.
Large quantities of cannabis herb are pro- European organized crime groups were involved in duced in Mexico and trafficked to the United States discount ibuprofen 600 mg line. Seizures in the United States rose to a record level of 2 buy generic ibuprofen 600mg on line,049 mt in 2009 order 600 mg ibuprofen overnight delivery, up by one third on the previous year, Large quantities of cannabis herb, as well as cannabis and a similar increase was registered in Mexico, with plants, continued to be seized in South America. Sei- seizures rising from 1,658 mt in 2008 to 2,105 mt in zures in this region peaked at 946 mt in 2007 and since 2009. The largest seizures were registered in Colombia, Seizures in Mexico were made mainly close to the areas where seizures declined from 255 mt in 2008 to 209 mt, of cultivation or close to the border with the United and in Brazil, where seizures also fell, from 187 mt in States. In relative terms, a significant increase Durango, Chihuahua and Sonora accounted for 75% of was registered in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, cannabis herb seizures, while Sinaloa, Chihuahua and where seizures rose by 58% in 2009, reaching 33 mt – Durango accounted for 76% of eradication, with the the highest level since 1990. The reported quan- the United States is partly locally produced and partly tities, which include predominantly cannabis plant, trafficked into the country from Mexico as well as, to a amounted to 320 kg in 1998, 28 mt in 2004 and 1,937 smaller extent, from Canada. For the purposes of aggregation, one cannabis plant is assumed to have a weight of 2,500 100 grams. Africa Seizures of cannabis herb in Africa have fluctuated con- siderably in recent years, but have followed a generally decreasing trend since the peak level of 2004. In 2009, Morocco, Egypt, 223 mt total seizures in Africa fell to 640 mt, from 936 mt in 63 mt 2008. Nigeria, Although cannabis herb continues to be trafficked 115 mt South Africa, throughout Africa, seizures tend to be concentrated in a 126 mt small number of countries. Morocco continued to seize large quantities of ‘kif,’ In 2007 and 2008, the largest annual seizures of can- selected parts of herbal cannabis which can be further nabis herb in Africa were reported by Nigeria. Nigeria assessed that, origin for cannabis herb, sometimes in addition to can- in 2009, cannabis herb on its territory originated entirely nabis resin. Seizures of ‘kif’amounted to 223 mt in in Nigeria itself, but was destined for the Netherlands 2009 to 187 mt in 2010. Nigeria also herb declined in Egypt, from 81 mt in 2008 to 63 mt, reported a notable increase in the farm-gate price of can- and in the United Republic of Tanzania, from 70 mt in nabis – from 8,000 Naira per kg in 2008 to 35,000 2008 to 56 mt. Both the decline in seizures and the increase in price were attributed to the destruction 38 Stambouli, H. This reflects the role of this country as a Total major trans-shipment hub for legitimate trade. South 300 India Africa assessed that, in 2009, 80% of cannabis herb on Indonesia 250 its territory originated in neighbouring countries (Lesotho and Swaziland). Contrary to the prevalent trend 50 of localized trafficking patterns for cannabis herb, seven of these mentions were by countries outside Africa. Seizures in this region rose the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and out of Thai- for the second year in a row, standing at 333 mt in 2009. Cannabis herb seizures in Thailand The increases were mainly due to the amounts seized in amounted to 19 mt in 2008 and 18 mt in 2009. Sig- India and Indonesia, which reported the largest seizures nificant quantities were also seized in 2009 in Malaysia in this region by far. In 2009, seizures fell to 111 mt, but remained In Japan, seizures declined from 504 kg in 2007 to 207 high in comparison with historical levels, which aver- kg in 2009. Japan attributed the decline to a decrease in aged 20 mt over the 2003-2007 period. Indonesia cases of illegal importation accompanied by an increase assessed that 99% of cannabis herb on its territory orig- in domestic illicit cultivation of cannabis. The increased levels were Japanese authorities, one case of large-scale indoor culti- attributed to improvements in law enforcement efforts, vation of cannabis was discovered in Japan and involved and the decline in 2009 to the success of alternative six Vietnamese and one Japanese national. India assessed that 81% of the can- tinued to be smuggled into Japan from other countries, nabis seized on its territory in 2009 originated in India such as Botswana, France, South Africa and the United itself, with the remainder originating in Nepal. The proportion attributable to prevalence rate of cannabis use in Australia, the seized West and Central Europe declined gradually from 73% quantities are relatively low, even when compared on a in 2004 to 48% in 2009. The year 2009 marked a sig- per capita basis with similar consumer markets such as nificant shift in cannabis resin seizures, away from the Europe and the United States. In Central Asia, the largest quantities of cannabis herb The high level of 2008 was partly due to increases in the continued to be seized by Kazakhstan (26 mt in 2009) Near and Middle East/South-West Asia; in particular a where cannabis was partially supplying the domestic 47 single extraordinarily large seizure of 236. Seizures seizures was registered in West and Central Europe in in West and Central Europe amounted to 101 mt, essen- 2008; however, in 2009 seizures fell in both West and tially sustaining the increased level of 2008. Central Europe and the Near and Middle East/South- In recent years, seizures of cannabis herb in Turkey have West Asia, and the drop was partially offset by seizures followed a notable increasing trend, rising six-fold over a in North Africa. According to Turkish authorities,46 tends to be met by production occurring in relative the increase in cannabis trafficking was attributable to proximity to consumption, large quantities of cannabis illicit cultivation taking place in some rural parts of the resin are trafficked significant distances to reach con- country. Cannabis resin Europe and North Africa Global cannabis resin seizures reached a record of 1,648 Spain continued to report the largest annual seizures of mt in 2008, and in 2009 declined to 1,261 mt - a level cannabis resin worldwide. Every resin are trafficked from the source country of Morocco year from 2001 onwards, West and Central Europe, the to Spain, and on to other countries in Europe.