By I. Ningal. Montana State University-Billings.
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Over the last decade buy generic slimex 10mg line, child health policy has highlighted the vulnerability of these children and emphasised the need for health services to engage with them and support them 38 39 43 slimex 15mg without a prescription, slimex 15mg cheap, –45 effectively in self-care behaviours. The case for early intervention in LTCs is compelling. Children diagnosed with LTCs face a lifetime of symptom management, and the extent to which they and their families negotiate this in childhood is likely to influence their longer-term health outcomes, life chances and subsequent patterns of health service 31 39, utilisation. Providing optimal, evidence-based support for self-care thus has the potential to make a significant and sustained contribution to NHS efficiency, as well as improving care quality and delivering direct benefits to patient health. The role and effectiveness of different forms of self-care support in adults has been explored. An already extensive evidence base includes rigorous evaluations of the Expert Patients Programme and assistive technologies through the Whole System Demonstrator programme. Comprehensive models of self-care argue that self-care cannot be divorced from the broader context in which it occurs. In children and young people, self-care knowledge, attitude and behaviour change50 are open to influence from health services, 51–53 parents and peers. Adolescence, in particular, is often characterised by increased risk-taking, lack of 27 29 54, , –56 adherence to treatment regimens and a greater than normal deterioration in health status. The importance of developing child- and young person-centred models that are developmentally appropriate and reflect the roles of parents and peers is increasingly being recognised. For some interventions, acceptability has also been demonstrated. Qualitative studies reveal that children, young people and parents all value the opportunities that group-based self-care support provide to interact with others in similar situations to themselves. Interventions that use e-health methods 31 32, to deliver self-care support have been judged to be feasible and applicable. Yet, despite a developing body of evidence on the clinical effectiveness of self-care support interventions for children and young people, key knowledge gaps remain. There has been insufficient synthesis of quantitative data on health-care utilisation and the comparative effectiveness of different self-care support strategies. Previous reviews and meta-analyses have focused almost exclusively on intermediate or clinical outcomes, and rigorous evaluations of the cost-effectiveness of self-care interventions and their impact on health-care utilisation are lacking. Moreover, existing reviews do not explore associations between content and outcomes; they typically treat outcomes and costs as separate concepts and rarely have an explicit focus on the joint effects of outcomes and costs. Assessing the efficiency of self-care support Commensurate with trends in the adult population, long-term physical and mental health conditions in 59–61 children and young people are increasing. Self-care support offers these young people and their families the opportunity to work collaboratively with professionals, actively participate in health-care decision-making and ensure that care is personalised to their needs. This has the potential to improving patient outcomes while simultaneously reducing resource utilisation and costs. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 3 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. Rigorous and comprehensive evaluation of the effects of self-care support for children and young people thus demands concurrent evaluation of patient outcomes and health-care costs. As shown in Figure 2, plotting these effects against each other can identify models of self-care that are able to reduce costs without comprising outcomes for children and young people (quadrant A) and distinguish these from models that reduce both outcomes and costs (quadrant B), or improve outcomes at increased cost (quadrant C). Systematic reviews and meta-analyses bear witness to the number of trials of self-care support for children and young people that have been conducted. Although not always designed to enable a full economic analysis, many present sufficient data to enable the intervention to be placed on the cost-effectiveness plane. Systematic synthesis of these data is required to inform evidence-based decision-making and the commissioning of high-quality, technically efficient services. Review aim The review reported here aimed to take account of health-care utilisation and costs in conjunction with health outcomes to provide evidence-based guidance on the provision of cost-effective self-care support for children and young people with long-term physical and mental health conditions. C: More effective D: Less effective More costly More costly Study data A: More effective B: Less effective Less costly Less costly Better outcomes FIGURE 2 Example matrix showing effects on utilisation and outcomes. What models of self-care support are associated with significant reductions in health-care utilisation without compromising health outcomes for children and young people with LTCs? What are the key recommendations for service commissioners regarding the delivery of self-care support for LTCs in children and young people? What are the priorities for research funding bodies regarding self-care support in children and young people? Study eligibility criteria Studies were assessed for inclusion in the review according to a standard set of eligibility criteria. These criteria are summarised in Box 1 and described in full below. Population We defined children and young people as individuals aged < 18 years. Although the transition to adult services is not always immediate and key elements of development may continue beyond 18 years of age, this cut-off point aligned with our earlier reviews on the clinical effectiveness of self-care support interventions for children and young people.
Management of acute and chronic renal failure is by hemodialysis; dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is managed by prolonging the time of dialysis; management of chronic dialysis encephalopathy is by renal transplantation purchase 15mg slimex mastercard. Clinically generic 10mg slimex with visa, it is similar to hyponatremia where encephalopathy possibly develops purchase slimex 15mg mastercard, due to dehydration. Common causes of hyponatremia are – Pure water loss (in renal diabetes insipidus and external insensible losses via the skin and lungs). When volume depletion with circulatory insufficiency is predominant, vigorous treatment with isotonic saline solution is mandatory. When the cause is diabetes insipidus, administer 2-5 units of aqueous vasopressin, or 1-5 mcg of desmopressin (DDAVP) should be given subcutaneously or intranasally. When hypernatremia is due to excessive gain, hypotonic (0. Hyponatremia: Three types of hyponatremia are described: Hypovolemic hyponatremia: patients with low intake of sodium- containing fluids and have attempted replacement with free water may present with encephalopathy. Hypervolemic hyponatremia: usually seen in congestive heart failure or hypoalbuminemia. This condition can be treated with fluid restriction, a wise use of diuretics as well as treatment of the primary cause. Euvolemic hyponatremia: This condition is seen in syndromes of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH) adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, severe psychogenic polydipsia, and Medical Diseases and Metabolic Encephalopathies | 105 hypoglycemia; also in pancreatitis with hyperlipidemia and hyperproteinemia. The degree of encephalopathy produced by hyponatremia depends on the rate of fall of serum sodium rather than its value. All cases of euvolemic hyponatremia are treated with fluid restriction (800-1000 ml/d) and removal of precipitants (Young 1998). Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM): Due to rapid correction of hyponatremia by more than 10 meq/d. Clinically, patients present with quadriparesis and cranial nerve dysfunction over several days, which may be followed by encephalopathy. The maximal lesion is seen in the basis pontis, but supratentorial white matter is also affected. Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH): It is a common syndrome in neurological diseases; it leads to hyponatremia and increases salt concentration in urine (>20 mmoI/L). Causes of SIADH include – Malignant neoplasms likes oat-cell carcinoma of lung, and Hodgkin disease – Non-malignant pulmonary diseases, e. Slow correction of hyponatremia by IV 3% sodium solution is recommended. IV 100 cc given over one-hour interval, until serum sodium level reach 125 mmol/l. Hypercalcemia: The encephalopathy of hypercalcemia is not different from any metabolic encephalopathy except in early anosmia. Patients start to complain at serum calcium level of 13 mg/dl, when abnormal EEG changes start to appear. Patients suffering from hyperparathyroidism may manifest seizures independent of serum calcium level due to elevated serum parathormone. Management: Hypercalcemia is corrected by saline diuresis, augmented with furosemide, followed by a choice of mithramycin steroids, phosphate or etidronate. Encephalopathy in Diabetic Patients Hypoglycemia: Clinically, patients who develop hypoglycemia are graded: – At 20 mg/dl, immediate loss of consciousness in adults and children, neonates resist hypoglycemia better, – At 45 mg/dl, confusion, irritability. Sometimes unexplained focal lesions appear with hypoglycemia. Nonketotic hyperosmolar hyperglycemia (NHH): Usually occurs in diabetic patients whose insulin production is adequate to inhibit lipolysis, but insufficient to prevent hyperglycemia, which result in a marked osmotic diuresis. In such situations, serum glucose may rise to 800-1200 mg/dl, and serum osmolarity may exceed 350 mOsm/L, which may invite development of brain edema. Management: Normal saline is infused slowly to correct hypotension and improve osmolality, in addition to insulin Medical Diseases and Metabolic Encephalopathies | 107 infusion at the rate of 10 IU/h, with regular checking of plasma glucose, since these patients are very sensitive to insulin. Glucose should be added to saline when plasma glucose is approximately 300 mg/dl (Quinn 2002). Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA): About 80% of DKA patients have encephalopathy and 10% are comatose. Management: Like NHH, but with higher amounts of insulin. If there is evidence of brain edema mannitol is used. If there is evidence of electrolyte imbalance, mandate correction. The use of IV sodium bicarbonate to compensate for metabolic acidosis is debatable (Quinn 2002). Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) Following cardiac or respiratory arrest, CO poisoning or cyanide poisoning, one of four clinical syndromes might appear: – Global encephalopathy – Memory loss – Postanoxic Parkinsonism – Lance-Adams syndrome (intention myoclonus) Findings predicting good prognosis are preserved pupillary responses, preserved roving eye movement, decorticate posture or better at initial examination.
In all Diseases cases in which an STD has been diagnosed in a child buy 10mg slimex with visa, eforts should be made to detect evidence of sexual abuse buy slimex 15 mg, including Examinations of children for sexual assault or abuse should conducting diagnostic testing for other commonly occurring be conducted in a manner designed to minimize pain and STDs (484–486) buy 10 mg slimex fast delivery. Collection of vaginal specimens in pre- Te general rule that sexually transmissible infections pubertal children can be very uncomfortable and should be beyond the neonatal period are evidence of sexual abuse has performed by an experienced clinician to avoid psychological exceptions. Te decision to obtain genital trachomatis among young children might be the result of or other specimens from a child to conduct an STD evaluation perinatally acquired infection and has, in some cases, persisted must be made on an individual basis. Genital warts have been diagnosed in place children at high-risk for STDs and constitute a strong children who have been sexually abused, but also in children indication for testing. BV • Te child has or has had symptoms or signs of an STD has been diagnosed in children who have been abused, but its or of an infection that can be sexually transmitted, even presence alone does not prove sexual abuse. In addition, most in the absence of suspicion of sexual abuse. Among the HBV infections in children result from household exposure signs that are associated with a confrmed STD diagnosis to persons who have chronic HBV infection. Cervical specimens are not rec- for other common STDs before the initiation of any treat- ommended for prepubertal girls. For boys with a urethral ment that could interfere with the diagnosis of those other discharge, a meatal specimen discharge is an adequate STDs. Because of the legal and psychosocial consequences substitute for an intraurethral swab specimen. Because of a false-positive diagnosis, only tests with high specifcities of the legal implications of a diagnosis of N. Te potential beneft to the child of a reliable infection in a child, if culture for the isolation of N. Gram stains are inadequate to ers with experience in the evaluation of sexually abused and evaluate prepubertal children for gonorrhea and should assaulted children. Specimens Te scheduling of an examination should depend on the from the vagina, urethra, pharynx, or rectum should be history of assault or abuse. If the initial exposure was recent, streaked onto selective media for isolation of N. A follow-up visit approximately involve diferent principles (e. Isolates should be preserved to a repeat physical examination and collection of additional enable additional or repeated testing. To allow sufcient time for antibodies to develop, • Cultures for C. However, a meatal specimen should be obtained medical evaluation. Pharyngeal specimens Te following recommendations for scheduling examina- for C. Te exact timing and nature of either sex because the yield is low, perinatally acquired follow-up examinations should be determined on an individual infection might persist beyond infancy, and culture sys- basis and should be performed to minimize the possibility tems in some laboratories do not distinguish between for psychological trauma and social stigma. Only standard culture follow-up appointments might be improved when law enforce- systems for the isolation of C. Te clinical manifestations of used for detection of C. All specimens should be retained Recommendations for HIV-Related Postexposure for additional testing if necessary. No data are available Assessment of Children within 72 Hours of regarding the use of NAATs in boys or for extragenital Sexual Assault specimens (e. Culture remains the preferred method HIV infection in the assailant. Sera should from the assault, discuss PEP with the caregiver(s), be tested immediately for antibodies to sexually transmit- including its toxicity and unknown efcacy. Agents for which suitable tests are available • If caregivers choose for the child to receive antiretroviral include T. Decisions regarding PEP (78,142,489), provide enough medication to last the agents for which to perform serologic tests should be until the return visit at 3–7 days after the initial assess- made on a case-by-case basis. Consultation with an expert is necessary before • Perform HIV antibody test at original assessment, 6 using NAATs in this context to minimize the possibility of weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Follow-Up Examination After Assault cinerea, and Moraxella catarrhalis). NAATs can be used as an In circumstances in which transmission of syphilis, HIV, alternative to culture with vaginal specimens or urine from or hepatitis B is a concern but baseline tests are negative, an girls, whereas culture remains the preferred method for urethral examination approximately 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months specimens or urine from boys and for extragenital specimens after the last suspected sexual exposure is recommended to (pharynx and rectum) from all children. All positive specimens allow time for antibodies to infectious agents to develop. Serologic testing for HIV regarding which tests should be performed must be made on infection should be considered for abused children. Although data are insufcient concerning the Te risk of a child acquiring an STD as a result of sexual efcacy and safety of PEP among both children and adults, abuse or assault has not been well studied. Presumptive treat- treatment is well tolerated by infants and children (with and ment for children who have been sexually assaulted or abused without HIV infection), and children have a minimal risk for is not recommended because 1) the incidence of most STDs in serious adverse reactions because of the short period recom- children is low after abuse/assault, 2) prepubertal girls appear mended for prohylaxis. In considering whether to to be at lower risk for ascending infection than adolescent or ofer antiretroviral PEP, health-care providers should consider adult women, and 3) regular follow-up of children usually whether the child can be treated soon after the sexual expo- can be ensured.