By I. Grimboll. Central College.
The principles of informed study; in practical terms 0.4 mg flomax fast delivery, this is a guarantee to consent are under continuous review and dis- the patient that an unreasonable hazard cannot cussion (e cheap flomax 0.2mg fast delivery. This is to be expected result from unfavorable randomization because when reasonable standards of informed consent are the treatment options are not known to be dependent not only on the design of a particular unequally hazardous 0.2 mg flomax with amex. In any case, there should The large majority of clinical trials use a written be an assurance that no patient identity infor- informed consent document. A statement of the circumstances under which the patient will be withdrawn from the 1. A clear statement that participation is volun- draw from the study at any time and for any tary and that there will be no repercussions reason, again without repercussions to his or either in the patient’s relationship with the her relationship with any clinical care giver. A statement that the patient will be required to part in the study; give a full and accurate clinical and treatment history on study entry and periodically there- 3. The possibility of assessment of hazard of study participation placebo treatment and the probability of will be communicated to the patient without being treated with each test therapy should delay. Clear descriptions of alternative therapies or ing part in the study, and a brief summary of standard therapies or procedures (if any), in how many patients in the past have been order that the patient can judge whether to exposed to the test medication. The methods for compensation that may be signed by both the patient and the investigator, available in the case of injury (these often and ideally the patient should sign before an impar- have marked international variations). Informed consent documents should be written in a language that is understandable to the 6. Name and telephone number of persons that patient, and ideally at a level of complexity that the patient may contact in case of any difﬁculty could be understood by a young adolescent of during the study. Also, the identity of person(s) average intelligence from the same community as of whom the patient may ask questions during the patient. There should be adequate time for the the day-to-day conduct of the study and an patient to review the document. All written infor- expression of willingness on the part of the med consent documents should be approved by an investigator to provide answers to any ques- ethics committee or an institutional review board tions that the patient may have. Under these conditions, there is often not even the time Surrogate informed consent to ﬁnd relatives to provide surrogate informed consent. Even if relatives can be found quickly Some patients are incapable of providing informed enough, then their emotional state may not be consent, whether written or not. These patients are suited to becoming truly informed before giving often in demographic subgroups which are medi- consent. Consequently, these are patients Experiments are now under way to investigate for whom there is encouragement to the pharma- whether some substitute for informed consent may ceutical industry by governments, activists and be used. One set of guidelines suggests that such others to increase research into experimental thera- clinical trials can be conducted when pies. For these patients, clinical research would be likely catchment area of suitable patients that impossible if written informed consent was an such a study is being undertaken; essential prerequisite. If the child is of sufﬁcient publicity; age, then his or her concurrence may also be sought; although this is not sufﬁcient evidence of 4. It is likely that these guidelines will be reﬁned, Again, forms of concurrence can be employed possibly on an international basis, in the near when possible. How- sibility of the typical pharmaceutical company, ever, for example, an investigator is responsible for it nonetheless behoves pharmaceutical physicians the patient’s role in the informed consent; if the to ensure that appropriate informed consent is investigator suspects that the patient is not truly being obtained in all company-sponsored studies. Investigators will often be the notion of a contract, where each party to the grateful if the company will draft an informed contract is responsible only for fulﬁlling its own consent document that complies with the guide- commitments (see Meisel and Kuczewski, 1996). Informed audits study sites, and disciplines investigators Consent: Legal Theory and Clinical Practice. DeCory, Matthew Marler and Johan Gabrielsson Successful preclinical drug discovery programs ties in humans speciﬁed in a prediscovery product frequently reach a point where there is a need to proﬁle. Meanwhile, the pharmacodynamic infor- choose one or two candidates from among a whole mation available typically includes data from pharmacological class of new drugs for phase I receptor-binding studies, in vitro functional assays testing (Welling and Tse, 1995). There is thus a and in vivo pharmacological screening experi- crucial need to make reliable and rapid predictions ments. Thus, compounds are chosen using in vivo data, and (c) from nonhuman in vivo data to animal data, partly because of suitable bioavail- clinical in vivo responses can be done more efﬁ- ability, half-life and tissue penetration character- ciently using online analysis and simulations. As we shall discuss below, the possibility of chapter seeks to show how rapid progression may multiphasic plasma level decay patterns following be achieved for new chemical entities through this intravenous dosing is an important element in this process, using in vitro and in vivo data and selection process. This must be Pharmacokinetics, related when possible to the seen in the context of the entire drug discovery observed drug effects, is a powerful and critical process, which, on a larger scale, is designed to component of the pivotal step from animal research ﬁnd potent, safe drugs (in humans), based on ani- to human research in the drug development pro- mal data (Figure 8. Data for chosen compounds will commonly vitro pharmacodynamic data will be routinely also have been subjected to simultaneous modeling combined with in vitro drug metabolism data in a of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data rational prediction of drug responses in healthy from animals, again in an effort to optimize the human volunteers, with consequent acceleration chances that the drugs chosen will have the proper- of the drug discovery effort, and therefore a general Principles and Practice of Pharmaceutical Medicine, 2nd Edition Edited by L. Unsa- ties to human drug response via in vitro and in vivo turated elimination mechanisms, in the absence of studies in laboratory animals drug sequestration, can be modeled as simple, ﬁrst- order elimination, using a constant (k) with units of À1 trend for more efﬁcient use of resources in early h ; plasma concentration (C) is then modeled by clinical development. If this prediction can become reli- increases, then so does the number of terms of able, then phase I studies become more conﬁrma- the form shown on the right-hand side of the equa- tory.
By imagining this disgusting las’s 1962 study of well-known scientists and other inno- scene over and over again purchase 0.2mg flomax, the client starts associating al- vators yielded a widely used four-stage breakdown of the cohol with vomit discount 0.2mg flomax fast delivery, and drinking becomes much less ap- creative process flomax 0.2mg sale. Finally, the therapist would instruct the client to mulating a problem, studying previous work on it, and imagine accepting a drink, becoming nauseous again, thinking intensely about it. In the imagined is no visible progress on the problem; it may be periodi- scene, the nausea (which is an unpleasant stimulus for cally “mulled over,” but it is largely left dormant, allow- almost everyone) goes away as a consequence of the ing subconscious ideas about it to emerge. In the final, The major advantage covert sensitization has over or verification, stage, the idea is tested and evaluated. Guilford first distinguished the tions asked on such tests include “Imagine all of the thought processes of creative people from those of other things that might possibly happen if all national and people in terms of convergent and divergent thinking. Researchers have found little correlation between In contrast, divergent thinking—the kind most closely as- the scores of fifth and tenth graders on divergent think- sociated with creativity and originality—involves the abil- ing tests and their actual achievements in high school in ity to envision multiple ways to solve a problem. Originality is capacity to consider many alternatives at the same time; not the only criterion of a successful solution to a prob- and originality refers to the difference between a person’s lem: it must also be appropriate for its purpose, and con- ideas and those of most other people. In addition, studies of people known for their been designed to assess creativity. Other traits known to be shared by highly cre- ative people include self-confidence, nonconformity, am- Creativity tests bition, and perseverance. Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Tests designed to measure creativity in children or once remarked that for every hundred thoughts he had, adults. In a 1986 study, a group of researchers identified Creativity tests, mostly devised during the past 30 three essential criteria for creative achievement: expertise years, are aimed at assessing the qualities and abilities in a specific field, which must be learned; creative skills, that constitute creativity. These tests evaluate mental including divergent thinking; and the motivation to en- abilities in ways that are different from—and even dia- gage in creative activity for its own sake regardless of ex- metrically opposed to—conventional intelligence tests. Studies not above average, but beyond a score of 120 there is lit- with identical twins raised separately show that environ- tle correlation between performance on intelligence and mental influences play at least as great a role in the de- creativity tests. Creative skills of Most creativity tests in use today are based at least identical twins reared apart vary more than their intellec- partially on the theory of creativity evolved by J. Guilford posited that the ability to en- ideas in both children and adults leads to increased cre- vision multiple solutions to a problem lay at the core of ativity. He called this process divergent thinking and by four-year-olds increased dramatically when novel de- its opposite—the tendency to narrow all options to a sin- signs were praised by adults; when this positive rein- gle solution—convergent thinking. Guilford identified forcement was stopped, the children reverted to produc- three components of divergent thinking: fluency (the ing unimaginative patterns. Other studies have used sim- ability to quickly find multiple solutions to a problem); ilar techniques to boost creativity scores of fifth graders, flexibility (being able to simultaneously consider a vari- improve the originality of stories written by sixth ety of alternatives); and originality (referring to ideas graders, and increased the ability of college students to that differ from those of other people). One interesting finding signed to assess an individual’s aptitude for divergent in studies such as these is that positively reinforcing one thinking included the Torrance (1962) and Meeker kind of creative activity encourages original thinking in (1969) tests. See also Intelligence quotient Those that measure verbal ability include: Further Reading • Word fluency : writing words containing a given letter Briggs, John. Fire in the Crucible: The Alchemy of Creative • Ideational fluency: naming things that belong to a Genius. Understanding Creativity: The Interplay of Bi- ological, Psychological, and Social Factors. San Francis- • Associational fluency:writing synonyms for a specified co: Jossey-Bass, 1998. In addition, it may • Alternate uses: listing as many uses as possible for a be impossible for any test to measure certain personal given object traits that are necessary for success in creative endeav- ors, such as initiative, self-confidence, tolerance of ambi- • Plot titles: writing titles for short-story plots guity, motivation, and perseverance. Tests also tend to • Consequences: listing consequences for a hypothetical create an anxiety-producing situation that may distort the event (“What if no one needed to sleep? Growing Up Creative: Nurturing a Lifetime of Cre- sketches of recognizable items ativity. Divergent thinking tests are generally evaluated based on the number and variety of answers provided; the originality of the answers; and the amount of detail they contain (a characteristic referred to as elaboration). Crisis intervention A number of creativity tests currently in use include sec- tions that measure divergent thinking. Rather than ways of thinking, some creativity tests evaluate attitudes, behavior, creative perception,orcre- The term crisis intervention can refer to several dif- ative activity. Some creativity tests specifically address ferent therapeutic approaches, which are applied in a va- the problem of assessing creativity in minority popula- riety of situations. The common denominator among tions, who are at a disadvantage in tests that place a these interventions, however, is their brief duration and strong emphasis on verbal and semantic ability. The Eby their focus on improving acute psychological distur- Gifted Behavior Index reflects the growing view of cre- bances rather than curing long-standing mental disor- ativity as specific to different domains. Some common examples of crisis intervention in- six talent fields: verbal, social/leadership, visual/spatial, clude suicide prevention telephone hotlines, hospital- math/science problem-solving, mechanical/technical, based crisis intervention, and community-based disaster and musical. Two psy- chiatrists in particular heavily influenced our approach to Creativity tests have been found reliable in the sense crisis intervention with their crisis theory. Erich Linde- that one person’s scores tend to remain similar across a mann and Gerald Caplan believed that, when people are variety of tests.
This technique is used whenever the medication—such as dextran (iron)—might cause a visible and permanent skin discoloration purchase flomax 0.2 mg online. Here’s how to administer medication using the Z-Track technique: • Check the prescriber’s medication order buy flomax 0.2mg line. Injection Site Description Ventrogluteal • Relatively free of major nerves and vascular branches purchase flomax 0.4 mg otc. Measure 2 to 3 fingers below the acromion process on the lateral midline of the arm to identify the proper site. Tips for Minimizing Pain Receiving medication via injection is a painful process for the patient. However, you can minimize the discomfort by following these tips: • Encourage the patient to relax. Position the patient flat on the abdomen with toes turned inward if you are using the dorsogluteal site. However, cubital veins should be avoided except in emergency situation because cubital veins are used for withdrawing blood specimens for laboratory testing. Medication may be admin- istered directly into the vein with a syringe, into an intermittent catheter inserted into the patient’s vein, or injected into intravenous fluids such as 5% Dextrose in Water (D5W) and delivered as an intravenous drip called a piggy back. Summary Medication is given to a patient using one of several routes depending on the nature of the medication and the patient’s condition. The sublingual and buccal routes are used for rapid absorption of medication because blood vessels are close to the surface of the tongue and gums. Medication is directed to the lungs by using the inhalation route where the patient uses an inhaler. The suppository route is used to absorb medication directly into the rectum or vagina. The parenteral route is used to inject medication directly into the dermal or subcutaneous tissue, muscle, or into the veins. If the dose of a transdermal patch is more than the prescriber’s medica- tion order (a) cut the patch to an appropriate length. The Z-Track injection is used (a) to prevent medication from leaking back onto the tissue. Although the prescriber specifies a dose in the medication order, the dose prescribed may not be the same as the dose that is on hand, requir- ing the nurse to calculate a comparable dose based on available medication. The nurse is responsible for weighing the patient and then applying a formula provided by the prescriber to calculate the actual dose. The Metric System and Medication Medication is prescribed in measurements of the metric system. Unit Purpose Equivalents Gram Weight 1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams (g) 1 gram (g) = 1000 milligrams (mg) 1 milligram = 1000 micrograms (mcg) 1 kilometer = 1000 liters Liter Volume 1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL) = 1000 cubic centimeters (cc) 1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cubic centimeter (cc) Medication calculation requires you to know how to multiply and divide. You’ll also need to know six metric measurements and five household measure- ments (ounces, teaspoon, tablespoon, cup and drop). The metric system uses grams to measure weight and liters to measure volume as shown in Table 7-1. Table 7-2 shows the commonly used prefixes that you’ll see when calculating medication. The prefix is placed before the unit of mea- sure such as 1 kilogram or 1 milliliter. The important point to remember is that the prefix of the measure implies the size of the measurement. Nurses encounter household measurements when providing home healthcare services and when determining a patient’s fluid intake and output in the hospital setting. Nurses also use pounds when calculating a dose that is based on a patient’s weight. Patients should use measuring spoons for medication administration at home and avoid using tableware. Patients are usually more comfortable self-administering medication if the dose is in household measurements. Therefore, a nurse must be able to convert household measure- ments to metric measurements. The nurse must convert that to milliliters (mL) or cubic centimeters (cc) in order to record the intake volume in the patient’s fluid input and output chart. Commonly used conversion factors for household measurement and metric measurement. For example, if the dose is in milligrams and the prescriber’s medication order specifies grams, you’ll need to convert grams to milligrams before calculating the dose. Converting from one metric unit to another metric unit isn’t difficult if you remember these three rules. Determine if the desired measurement is larger or smaller than the given measurement.