By P. Candela. Alderson-Broaddus College. 2018.
Recordkeeping Records must be maintained for the receipt buy discount baclofen 10mg on line, storage buy 10mg baclofen, and disposal of radioactive materials order baclofen 25 mg amex, and also for various activities performed in the radi- ation laboratories. There are two types of packaging: Type A: This type of packaging is used primarily for most radiopharma- ceuticals. Such packaging is sufﬁcient to prevent loss of radioactive mate- rial with proper shielding to maintain the prescribed exposure during normal transportation. Type B: When the radioactivity exceeds the limits speciﬁed in Type A, Type B packaging must be used. Such packaging is considerably more accident resistant and is required for very large quantities of radioactive material. The packages must pass certain tests such as the drop test, corner drop test, compression test, and 30-min water spray test. Each package must be labeled on opposite sides with the appropriate warning label (one of the labels in Table 16. The label must identify the content and amount of radionuclide in curies or becquerels. Department of Transportation labels required for transportation of radioactive materials. The outside of the inner packaging or, if there is no inner packaging, the outside of the packaging itself bears the marking, “Radioactive”. No shipping paper is required for both limited quantity or empty packages, if the material is not hazardous. European Regulations Governing Radiopharmaceuticals 295 Employees who ship hazardous material including radioactive material must have hazmat training to be able to recognize and identify hazardous material, to conduct their speciﬁc function, and to enforce safety procedures to protect the public. The training must be given to a new employee within 90 days of employment and then repeated every three years. The training is provided by the hazmat employer or other public or private sources, and a record of training must be made. Directives are manda- tory to be translated into national legislation and implemented in each member country. Guidelines are recommendations (not mandatory) for implementation of the directives by each member country. Regulations are mandatory for all member countries without adoption into individual national legislation. This directive facilitates the free movement of medicinal drugs among the member states, and sets guidelines for production of quality medicinal products using good manufacturing methods supervised by qualiﬁed per- sonnel. This directive also controls the importation of medicinal products from a third country, particularly regarding the quality and integrity of the products. Radiation Regulations and Protection A drug can be approved for marketing in either a centralized or decentralized way. In the decentralized procedure, an application for drug marketing is made to one member state that approves or disapproves it after review. The applicant state can then present the authorization to other member states for regis- tration to market the drug in those states. The European Pharmacopoeia speciﬁes the characteristics of all radio- pharmaceuticals in monograph forms, regarding radionuclidic and radio- chemical purity, pH, sterility, pyrogenicity, and so on. Similarly, the nuclear physician is responsible for the administration of a radiopharmaceutical to the patient and the clinical care of the patient for any adverse reactions thereof. Claims may be made against any adverse reaction for up to 10 years after the event, therefore the patient’s and preparation’s records must be maintained for this length of time. Clinical trials are conducted by qualiﬁed clinicians based on protocols approved by an ethics committee in each institution. Data are collected on pharmacokinetic characteristics, clinical efﬁcacy, safety, and the like for a particular indication of a disease, which are then submitted for marketing authorization. So in some member states, these directives are effectively implemented, and in others they are leniently applied, and in some cases, there may be a breach of these community laws. Deﬁne committed dose equivalent, deep-dose equivalent, total effec- tive dose equivalent, radiation area, and high radiation area. What are the annual dose limits for radiation workers for: (a) Whole body (b) Lens (c) Extremities 3. What is the dose limit in the unrestricted area and for the individual members of the public? What is the approximate amount of lead necessary to reduce the expo- sure rate from a 200-mCi–99mTc source to less than 5mR/hr at 20cm from the source? If 1% of the primary beam exits through a patient, calculate the expo- sure at the midline of the patient. What are the criteria for the release of patients administered with radiopharmaceutical? Nuclear Medi- cine–Factors Inﬂuencing the Choice and Use of Radionuclides Diagnosis and Therapy.
The analogy in 1248 a 26 buy baclofen 25 mg fast delivery, ‘as it is a god (or discount baclofen 25 mg otc, God) that moves the universe buy baclofen 25mg amex, so it is in the soul’ (ãsper n tä ¾lw qe¼v kn ke©nw) seems to exclude the possibility that it is an immanent principle. In any case this ‘god’ is not identical with ‘the divine element in us’ (t¼ n ¡m±n qe±on, line 27), for this is the ‘intellect’ (noÓv), whereas ‘God’ is ‘superior to intellect’ (kre±tton toÓ noÓ). If the Unmoved Mover is referred to, then the wording ‘principle of movement’ (rc t¦v kinsewv), which is usually set aside for efﬁcient causality, is awkward, since the Unmoved Mover moves as a ﬁnal cause (but see Potscher (¨ 1970) 57). But it is questionable whether the theology of Metaphysics should serve as a guiding principle here: passages such as Pol. The same applies to 1248 a 38: ‘he sees well both the future and the present’ (toÓto kaª eÔ ¾r kaª t¼ mllon kaª t¼ Àn), which seems inconsistent with God’s activity of ‘thinking of thinking’ (nosewv n»hsiv)inMetaph. This contrast supports the view that Aristotle here does not, as Effe (1970) argues (cf. The presence of the word nqousiasm»v (‘divine inspiration’) here in Aristotle’s text does not alter this view, for this is used by Aristotle elsewhere to denote an affection (a pqov) of the human soul (cf. The conclusion that eutuchia is found among simple-minded people is therefore not incompatible with the statement that eutuchia is ‘divine’ (qe©a): the psycho-physiological process that Aristotle here has in mind does not presuppose an active and purposive divine choice (pimleia or fil©a) – whereas the theory rejected in 1247 a 28–9 does presuppose such a choice, as the verb ‘love’ (filw) shows – but is based on a general physi- cal divine movement which works more strongly with those people whose reasoning faculty is disengaged. The process seems similar to the workings of the ‘superhuman nature’ (daimon©a fÅsiv), to which Aristotle ascribes the phenomenon of prophetic dreams in On Divination in Sleep (463 b 14); there the susceptibility of simple-minded people to foresight and clear dream images, as well as the absence of this susceptibility in intelligent people, is accounted for by the absence (or, in the case of the intelligent people, the presence) of rational activity: ‘for the mind of such [i. By contrast, in intelligent people the presence of ‘their own proper movements’ (o«ke±ai kinseiv) prevents this susceptibility. Il faut plutot rapprocher ce passage des dialogues de Platon´ ˆ ˆ ou l’on voit cites les memes phenomenes psychiques et notamment de Menon. Gigon (` ´ ˆ ´ ` ´ 1969) 211: ‘Man wird allerdings auch zugestehen mussen, daß der Einschub uber den Enthusiasmus verwirrend¨ ¨ wirkt: denn in ihm liegt eine gottliche Einwirkung vor, die ihrer besonderen Art nach kaum¨ sunecv genannt werden kann. Thisiscalled Aristotle on divine movement and human nature 247 form of ‘divine concern’ (qe©a pimleia), but the theory of others that a god ‘sends’ (pmpei) dreams to people does suppose divination in sleep to be such, for ‘sending’ presupposes an active and purposive divine choice, whereas such a choice is for Aristotle, as we have seen, incompatible with the fact that prophetic dreams are found among simple people and not among the best and wisest. For this reason he uses three times the same distribution argument as that in Eth. The second part of the solution is in that the movement of God is, in principle, not limited to the class of the ‘irrational’ (logoi) people, but extends to the ‘wise and intelligent’ (sofoª kaª fr»nimoi) as well. To demonstrate this I shall ﬁrst summarise my interpretation of the passage 1248 a 15ff. Having established that eutuchia proceeds from natural desire (¾rma© and piqum©ai), Aristotle asks in turn for the starting-point of this desire, probably because it is not yet clear why this natural desire should be aimed in the right direction. He considers that this starting-point will also be the origin of rational activity (noÓv and boÅleusiv), and having disposed of ‘chance’ (tÅch) as an evidently unsatisfactory candidate for this function he argues that the starting-point wanted is in fact the starting-point of movement in the soul; then it is clear that this starting-point is God. Thus God is the starting-point of all psychic activity, both of reasoning (no¦sai) and of the irrational impulses (¾rma©) on which eutuchia is based. God is even more powerful than the divine principle in man, the intellect (noÓv), and it is for this reason that people who are devoid of rational activity, too, can make the right choice: they succeed without reasoning because they still have God, although the wise people also have God and use his movement in their calculation of the future, either by experience or by habit: thus there is a more rational form of divination as well. Both irrational and rational divination, then, ‘use’ God (who sees the future as well as the present), but God moves more strongly in those people whose reasoning faculty is disengaged. Thus God’s movement is present both in the irrational people daimonia because it is beyond human control, as is indicated by the use of the word daim»niov in Somn. The individual human nature is further called daimonia because it works more strongly when reason is inactive, and because it plays the part of intermediary between God and man, which Greek tradition assigned to demons. This is an obvious reference to the distribution argument in 1247 a 28–9, where it was stated that it is ‘paradoxical’ that a god or demon should love simple people, not the best and wisest (m t¼n bltiston kaª fronimÛtaton); evidently Aristotle remains aware of the distribution argument and anticipates it by means of a careful presentation of his own explanation. For the purpose of clarity I will print ﬁrst a text and a translation of each section and then add comments on the section in question. The text of the manuscript tradition will be followed as closely as possible; any deviations from it will be accounted for from line to line. It seems to me that the numerousproblemsofinterpretationinthischapteraredueatleastasmuchtoAristotle’sconciseand often frankly clumsy way of writing as to possible corruptions in the text. Therefore the interpreter should maintain a fundamental distinction between hypotheses concerning the original text which Aristotle wrote down, and hypotheses concerning what he intended to say. This distinction seems to have often been ignored, and apparently interpreters have, with an appeal to the abysmal state of the text, proposed many conjectures with a view to making the text comply with interpretations mainly prompted by theological assertions in other Aristotelian writings. The unfortunate consequence of this process is that there is no generally accepted text on which to base a debate concerning the tenability of a particular interpretation: in order to scrutinise it, one has to be willing to accept, for the sake of argument, the readings proposed by the interpreter, while these readings were actually chosen to support the interpretation. This account should be based principally on the immediate context and only secondarily on statements on the subject in other Aristotelian writings. Aristotle on divine movement and human nature 249 23 panta staiá £35 sti tiv rc ¨v oÉk stin llh xw, aÌth 24 d di t¼ toiaÅth e²nai toioÓto dÅnatai poie±n;36 t¼ d 25 zhtoÅmenon toÓtì sti, t©v ¡ t¦v kinsewv rc n t¦ yuc¦; d¦lon 26 d ãsper n tä Âlw qe¼v kn ke©nw. For we did not deliberate at a particular moment concerning a particular thing after having deliberated – no, there is a certain starting-point, nor did we think after having already thought before thinking, and so on to inﬁnity.
More precise categorization of disease can potentially improve drug treatment by specifying which patients will respond to which treatments discount 10 mg baclofen otc. Universal Free E-Book Store 32 1 Basic Aspects Translational Science and Personalized Medicine Translational science or medicine means applications of research ﬁndings for improving healthcare and is an important aspect of personalized medicine proven 25 mg baclofen. It is deﬁned as: • T1 or translational phase 1 begins the translation journey from bench to bedside to community purchase 25 mg baclofen with amex. If T1-T3 were successful, the next step is to ﬁnd the best method of reaching clinicians and patients with a nationwide policy concerning treatment X or strategy Y. Systems medicine approaches for the deﬁnition of com- plex phenotypes in chronic diseases and ageing. Multiple evidence strands suggest that there may be as few as 19000 human protein-coding genes. De novo designed proteins from a library of artiﬁcial sequences function in Escherichia coli and enable cell growth. Systems biology and emerging technologies will catalyze the transition from reactive medicine to predictive, personalized, preventive and participatory (P4) medicine. Progress with proteome projects: why all proteins expressed by genome should be identiﬁed and how to do it. Universal Free E-Book Store Chapter 2 Molecular Diagnostics in Personalized Medicine Introduction Molecular diagnostics, the use of diagnostic testing to understand the molecular mechanisms of an individual patient’s disease, will be pivotal in the delivery of safe and effective therapy for many diseases in the future. Diagnostics inﬂuence as much as 70 % of health care decision making, and a new generation of diagnostics tests that provide insights at the molecular level is delivering on the promise of personal- ized medicine. Role of molecular diagnostics in personalized medicine covers the following aspects: • Early detection and selection of appropriate treatment determined to be safe and effective on the basis of molecular diagnostics • Integration of molecular diagnostics with therapeutics • Monitoring therapy as well as determining prognosis In parallel with two important components of personalized medicine− pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (compared in Table 5. In some cases the pattern or proﬁle of the change rather than the individual biomarker is relevant to diagnosis. Molecular diagnostic technologies relevant to per- sonalized medicine are shown in Table 2. DirectLinear™ Analysis has numerous potential applications in life sci- ence research and drug discovery as well as development. Entire genomes of novel organisms can be mapped nearly instantaneously, inviting comparison with known genomes and allowing researchers to focus on conserved regions or novel genomic features. Genetic differences between two samples or populations can readily be detected by comparing differences in barcode patterns, allowing the rapid identiﬁ- cation of polymorphisms associated with disease or adverse drug response. Rapid genomic mapping of microbial organisms will have great utility in infectious dis- ease research and diagnostics, as well as biodefense. Finally, rapid, low-cost access to each person’s genomic information is a key to enabling molecular diagnostics and, ultimately, personalized medicine. It is also an ideal technology to uncover genetic polymor- phisms in normal populations represented by deletions and duplications. It also permits the analysis of insertions, deletions, splice variants, gene copy numbers, or CpG islands within the genome for gene methylation studies, by performing additional bisulﬁte reactions. Advantages for this method over usual hybridization strategies are: • Reduced mismatching due to intercession of the polymerase. It is a fully homoge- neous, rapid procedure with four steps: gene isolation, hybridization, detection and Universal Free E-Book Store 40 2 Molecular Diagnostics in Personalized Medicine analysis. Sequencing is also used to determine protein sequences, but it is difﬁcult to determine protein function from sequence. Sequencing technologies are described in a special report on this topic (Jain 2015b). Apart from their impact on hereditary neurologic diseases, high-throughput genome sequencing technolo- gies will improve our understanding of sporadic neurologic diseases as well, par- ticularly those with low-penetrant mutations in the gene for hereditary diseases or de novo mutations (Tsuji 2013 ). Role of Sequencing in Personalized Medicine Among various technologies, sequencing will play an important role in the develop- ment of personalized medicine as shown in Fig. Sequencing was done with use of Heliscope single mol- ecule sequencer (Helicos BioSciences) and reduced the cost to $50,000. Clinical assessment included analysis of this patient’s full genome sequence, risk prediction for coronary artery disease, screening for causes of sudden cardiac death, and genetic counselling. Genetic analysis included the development of novel methods for the integration of whole genome and clinical risk. Disease and risk analysis focused on prediction of genetic risk of variants associated with mendelian disease, recognized drug responses, and pathogenicity for novel variants. The authors que- ried disease-speciﬁc mutation databases and pharmacogenomics databases to iden- tify genes and mutations with known associations with disease and drug response. They estimated post-test probabilities of disease by applying likelihood ratios derived from integration of multiple common variants to age-appropriate and sex- appropriate pre-test probabilities. They also accounted for gene-environment inter- actions and conditionally dependent risks. Although challenges remain, these results suggest that whole- genome sequencing can yield useful and clinically relevant information for indi- vidual patients. This devel- opment has overcome several challenges posed by microarray technologies, includ- ing the limited dynamic range of detection (Ozsolak and Milos 2011 ).
Thus buy 10mg baclofen free shipping, the most appropriate management of this patient should include an α-adrenergic receptor blocker discount baclofen 25mg mastercard. Phentolamine and nitroprusside are two agents that can be used intravenously in the setting of hypertensive crises quality 25mg baclofen. This patient should be managed as such as she has evidence of increased intracranial pressure on oph- thalmologic examination. The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is best made by 24-h urine collection for metanephrines and vanillylmandelic acid. Plasma catecholamines are elevated in pa- tients with pheochromocytoma, but the routine measurement of these levels for diagnosis is confounded by the wide variation in levels associated with various stressors. If plasma catecholamines are to be used, the levels must be drawn with the patient at rest for at least 30 minutes and drawn through an indwelling intravenous catheter. Cardiovascular disease is more prevalent with age, affecting only 5% at age 20 with a rise to 75% at age >75 years. Al- though age-adjusted death rates for cardiovascular disease have declined by two-thirds since 1965, the actual number of hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure are increasing as more individuals are surviving an initial heart attack to live with chronic cardiovascular disease and heart failure. In 2002, it was estimated by the American Heart Association that 32 million women and 30 million men had cardiovascular disease. Heart disease is responsible for 43% of deaths in females and 37% of deaths in males. Cardiovascular disease in women is more likely to present atypically without chest pain and is also more likely to be due to dysfunc- tion of the microcirculation and thus less amenable to current interventional therapies. Most commonly, electrolyte disturbances such as hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia, phenothiazines, ﬂuoroquinolones, antiarrhythmic drugs, tricyclic antidepressants, intracranial events, and bradyarrhythmias are associated with this malig- nant arrhythmia. Management, besides stabilization, which may require electrical cardiover- sion, consists of removing the offending agent. If an anticoagulant is added, enoxaparin has been shown to be superior to un- fractionated heparin in reducing recurrent cardiac events. Eptiﬁbatide, tiroﬁban, and abciximab are beneﬁcial for patients likely to receive percuta- neous intervention. Indications for intervention for descending dissections acutely include occlu- sion of a major aortic branch with symptoms. For example, paralysis may occur with oc- clusion of the spinal artery or worsening renal failure may occur in the case of dissection that involves the renal arteries. Once a descending dissection has been found, intensive medical management of blood pressure is imperative and should include agents that de- crease cardiac contractility and aortic shear force. Finally, patients with Marfan’s syndrome have increased complications with descending dissections and should be con- sidered for surgical repair, especially if there is concomitant disease in the ascending aorta as demonstrated by aortic root dilation to greater than 50 mm. Anemia, pain, and myocardial ischemia are also causes of tachycardia that should be considered when managing a new tachycardia. Patients with wide complex tachycardia suggestive of ventricu- lar tachycardia or known preexcitation syndrome should be treated with agents that de- crease automaticity, such as quinidine and procainamide. However, in patients with apparent ventricular tachycardia who have neither a history of ischemic heart disease nor preexcitation syndrome, adenosine may be a useful diagnostic agent to determine whether a patient has a reentrant tachycardia, in which case the drug may terminate it; an atrial tachycardia, in which case the atrial activity may be unmasked; or a true, preexcited tachy- cardia, in which case adenosine will have no effect. Although adenosine is not the recom- mended primary therapy for patients with wide complex tachyarrhythmia, patients with junctional tachycardia who have evidence of poor ventricular function or concomitant β- adrenergic blockade may be reasonable candidates for its use. The risk of rupture and subsequent management are related to the size of the aneurysm as well as symptoms related to the aneurysm. When symptoms do occur, they are frequently related to mechanical complica- tions of the aneurysm causing compression of adjacent structures. This includes the trachea and esophagus, and symptoms can include cough, chest pain, hoarseness, and dysphagia. The risk of rupture is ~2–3% yearly for aneurysms <4 cm and rises to 7% per year once the size is greater than >6 cm. Beta blockers are recommended because they decrease contractility of the heart and thus decrease aortic wall stress, potentially slowing aneurys- mal growth. Individuals with thoracic aortic aneurysms should be monitored with chest imaging at least yearly, or sooner if new symptoms develop. Operative repair is indicated if the an- eurysm expands by >1 cm in a year or reaches a diameter of >5. Endovascular stenting for the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms is a relatively new procedure with limited long-term results available. The largest study to date included >400 patients with a variety of indications for thoracic endovascular stents. However, if the procedure was done emer- gently, the mortality rate at 30 days was 28%. At 1 year, data were available on only 96 of the original 249 patients with degenerative thoracic aneurysms. Ongoing studies with long-term follow-up are needed before endovascular stenting can be recommended for the treatment of tho- racic aortic aneurysms, although in individuals who are not candidates for surgery, stent- ing should be considered. Furthermore, this artery in the majority of the population arises from the right coronary artery.
The tricyclic grinders should be cleaned thoroughly; curing (salt- antidepressants are used to treat clinical depression discount baclofen 25mg otc, ing) cheap 10 mg baclofen overnight delivery, drying purchase baclofen 10 mg on line, smoking, and microwaving meat do not fibromyalgia, and other pain conditions. Irradiation of wild trigeminal nerve The chief nerve of sensation game meat can kill the parasites. A person who for the face, which is also the motor nerve that con- thinks he or she has trichinosis should seek medical trols the muscles used for chewing. Problems with Trichobezoars can sometimes cause blockage of the the motor root of the trigeminal nerve result in devi- digestive system, especially at the exit of the stom- ation of the jaw toward the affected side and trouble ach. The species of tri- trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve) that most chomonas responsible for the sexually transmitted commonly causes paroxysms of very intense light- disease is Trichomonas vaginalis. The vagina is the ning pain in the areas of the face that the nerve sup- most common site of infection in women, and the plies—the lips, eye, nose, scalp, forehead, gums, urethra (urine canal) is the most common site of cheek, and chin—on the involved side of the face. Triggers for attacks can include touching the face, brushing the teeth, putting on makeup, and a soft trichomoniasis Infection with the parasite breeze. Neurosurgery transmitted, and the vagina is the most common site may be necessary to relieve pressure on the nerve of infection in women, while the urethra (urine or to reduce nerve sensitivity. Most men with trichomoniasis have no signs or symptoms; however, some men may have an irrita- triglyceride The major form of fat, which con- tion inside the penis, mild discharge, or slight burn- sists of three molecules of fatty acid combined with ing after urination or ejaculation. Triglycerides signs or symptoms of infection which include a serve as the backbone of many types of lipids (fats). Treatment is usually with the drug metronidazole given by mouth the level of triglycerides in the blood. Having trichomoniasis once does levels are influenced by recent fat and alcohol not protect a person from getting it again. The normal level of triglycerides depends on impulse control disorder characterized by the the age and sex of the individual. Mild to moderate repeated urge to pull out scalp hair, eyelashes, eye- triglyceride increases occur in many conditions, http://www. Markedly high triglyceride levels (greater than 500 mg/dl) can trisomy 18 syndrome The presence of three cause inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). Children with trisomy 18 syndrome have multi- ple malformations and mental retardation. They triiodothyronine A hormone that is made by the characteristically have low birth weight, small head thyroid gland. Triiodothyronine has three iodine (microcephaly), small jaw (micrognathia), malfor- molecules attached to its molecular structure. It is mations of the heart and kidneys, clenched fists with the most powerful thyroid hormone, and it affects abnormal finger positioning, and malformed feet. A second- trochanter One of the bony prominences toward trimester fetus that is born prematurely may be the near end of the thighbone (the femur). The are two trochanters: third trimester marks the final stage of fetal growth, • The greater trochanter A powerful in which systems are completed, fat accumulates protrusion located at the proximal under the soon-to-be-born baby’s skin, and the (near) and lateral (outside) part of the fetus at last moves into position for birth. In humans, triploid is equal to 69 trochanter is also called the minor chromosomes. The trochanters are points at which hip and thigh trismus pseudocamptodactyly syndrome See muscles attach. The most com- trochanter receives the insertion of several muscles mon trisomies in newborns are trisomy 13 (Patau (including the psoas major and iliacus muscles). Children with trisomy 13 syndrome are pro- the eyeball upward and outward (and, therefore, in foundly mentally retarded and have multiple malfor- double vision). The trochlear nerve is the fourth mations, commonly including scalp defects, cranial nerve, and it is the only cranial nerve that hemangiomas (blood vessel malformations) of the arises from the back of the brain stem. It follows the face and nape of the neck, cleft lip and palate, mal- longest course within the skull of any of the cranial formations of the heart and abdominal organs, and nerves. Gestational trophoblastic tumors considered permanent because reversal requires start inside the uterus, the hollow, muscular, pear- major surgery. This type of tubes by various surgical techniques, usually under tumor occurs in women during the years when they general anesthesia. There are two types of gestational trophoblastic tumors: hydatidiform mole tubal pregnancy See pregnancy, tubal. For specific types of troponin test A sensitive and specific blood test tubes, see their alphabetical listing. For example, the back- complex of proteins found in skeletal and cardiac ward protrusion of the heel is called the tuber cal- muscle. Normally, very low levels of troponin are canei or, alternatively, the tuberosity of the present in the bloodstream. Small tubers are a characteristic finding forms of damage to heart muscle release a certain in tuberculosis, and tubers in the brain are seen in subtype of troponin into the bloodstream, where it tuberous sclerosis. Diagnosis is made via Trypanosoma cruzi The microorganism that skin test, which if positive is followed by a chest X- causes Chagas disease.