By B. Uruk. University of North Alabama. 2018.
Community-acquired pneumonia: effective against all important pathogens other than atypical organisms for which a macrolide or a quinolone is added (Legionella buy 50mg silagra overnight delivery, Mycloplasma purchase silagra 50 mg visa, Chlamydia) generic silagra 50mg visa. Mechanism of action: Binds to penicillin-binding proteins and disrupts or inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cefuroxime axetil tablets • Pharyngitis, tonsillitis Ð Adults, children >13 years: 250 mg q12h for 10 days. Cefuroxime suspension • Pharyngitis, tonsillitis Ð Children 3 months–12 years: 20 mg/kg/d in 2 divided doses. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance <20 mL/min: 750 mg– 1. American Academy of Pedia- trics considers cephalosporins to be compatible with breastfee- ding. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to other cephalosporins or related antibiotics, eg, penicillin. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following condition: kidney disease. For group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections, therapy should be continued for 10 days. A negative response to penicillin does not preclude allergic reaction to a cephalo- sporin. Advice to patient: Allow at least 1 hour between taking this medication and a bacteriostatic antibiotic, eg, tetracycline or amphenicol. Clinically important drug interactions • Drug that increases effects/toxicity of cefuroxime: probenecid. In children, however, ceftriaxone is superior to cefuroxime in the treatment of H. Advice to patient: Report to treating physician if you experience any of the following symptoms: dyspepsia, changes in stool, abdominal pain, swelling of ankles. Clinically important drug interactions • Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of celecoxib: rifampin, aspirin, fluconazole, inhibitors of cytochrome P450 2C9. Mechanism of action: Binds to penicillin-binding proteins and disrupts or inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis. Susceptible organisms in vivo • Very active against Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance 50–80 mL/min: 2 g q6h; creatinine clearance 25–50 mL/min: 1. American Academy of Pedi- atrics considers cephalosporins to be compatible with breast- feeding. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to other cephalosporins or related antibiotics, eg, penicillin. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following condition: kidney disease. For group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections, therapy should be continued for 10 days. Anegative response to peni- cillin does not preclude allergic reaction to a cephalosporin. Advice to patient: Allow at least 1 hour between taking this med- ication and a bacteriostatic antibiotic, eg, tetracycline or ampheni- col. Clinically important drug interactions: Probenecid increases effects/toxicity of cephalexin. Editorial comments • Oral cephalosporins are used for Staphylococcus aureus and streptococcal infection, when penicillins are to be avoided. They should not be used for sinusitis, otitis media, or lower respiratory infections because of poor coverage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Hemophilus influenzae. They are not suitable coverage for bite wounds as they do not cover Pasteurella multocida. Mechanism of action: Binds to penicillin-binding proteins and disrupts or inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis. Susceptible organisms in vivo • Very effective against staphylococci and streptococci, poten- tially active against Streptococcus pneumoniae, active against enterococci. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance less than 80 mL/min: usual adult dose; creatinine clearance 50–80 mL/min: ≤2 g q6h; creatinine clearance 25–50 mL/min: up to 1. American Academy of Pedi- atrics considers cephalosporins to be compatible with breast- feeding. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to other cephalosporins or related antibiotics, eg, penicillin. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to statins, active liver disease or unexplained persistent elevations of serum transaminase, preg- nancy, lactation. Editorial comments • It remains to be established whether cerivastatin has a signifi- cant effect on morbidity and mortality from coronary heart dis- ease. Until the safety and effectiveness of higher doses of cerivastatin have been determined, older drugs are preferred. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance <31 mL/min: reduce dose to 5 mg/d.
For example generic silagra 100 mg line, if the average population Vd for a particular drug is 1L/kg and the desired plasma concentration is 15mg/L generic 100mg silagra amex, the required average loading dose would be 15mg/kg discount 100 mg silagra with amex. Total Body Water and Extracellular Fluid Volume Expanded total body water values relative to body weight are observed in new- borns, infants, and children when compared with adults: 80% total body weight in premature infants and 70 to 75% in newborns as compared with 50 to 60% in adults. Total Body Fat Preterm infants have significantly lower body fat (1%) when compared with full-term infants (15%) and adults (20%). Lipid-soluble drugs, such as benzodiazepines, would, therefore, demonstrate lower Vd estimates in prema- ture infants, leading to augmented clinical effects. In the presence of lower concentrations of albumin in the first year of life (75–80% of adult values5), the presence of fetal albumin with reduced affinity for many drugs; endogenous competitive substances, such as bilirubin and free fatty acids; and higher free-drug concentrations for drugs such as phenytoin, salicylates, and val- proic acid may result in augmented response. Additionally, concen- trations of this protein are 50% of adult levels during infancy and increase slowly during the first year of life. Schmitt Drug Elimination Drug elimination from the body generally occurs via the liver or other sites of metabolism and/or the kidney through excretion of active drug or biotransformed metabolites. Metabolism Drug metabolism occurs through biotransformation through Phase I reactions (oxidation, reduction, sulfoxidation, and hydrolysis)4 by conversion of a func- tional group such as hydroxyl, amine, or sulfhydryl. High clearance drugs include metoprolol, propranolol, lidocaine, nitroglycerin, and verapamil. For these drugs, clearance is greatly dependent on hepatic blood flow, necessitating dosage adjustment when diseases affect hepatic blood flow. These enzymes, present in highest concentrations in the liver, small intestine, kidney, lung, and brain, are responsible for drug metabolism, with more than 30 types of human 2. Intense interest is focused on these pathways, because observed genetic polymorphism affects drug metabolism and, therefore, effects. More than 90% of common medications are metabolized by seven isoenzymes: 3A4, 3A5, 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 2E1. Examples of irreversible inhibitors include clarithromycin and erythromycin, isoniazid, carbamazepine, irinotecan, verapamil, midazolam, fluoxetine, and grapefruit products including bergamottin. Isoenzyme activity may be affected by potent inducing compounds, including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine, as well as rifampin. As many as 3 to 10% of the white and 0 to 2% of Asian and African American populations may demonstrate slowed rates of drug metabolism (“poor metabolizers”) for substrates including opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, flecainide, fluoxetine, β-blockers, and mexilitine. Again, enzyme induction is seen with concurrent use of phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine. Examples of drugs that may inhibit this system include fluconazole and potentially other azole antifungals, omeprazole, sertraline, fluoxetine, and isoniazid. Inducing substances include phenytoin, phenobarbi- tal, and carbamazepine, as well as rifampin. Applications in Pediatric Practice 23 Development of glucuronidation activity to adult values has been reported to occur over widely variable time periods, from 3 months to older than 3 years of age. These are considered adverse drug effects that are usually predictable and,ideally, avoid- able. Although more than 100,000 drug interactions have been documented, only a subset of these are clinically significant because of potential for harm. Patients receiving multiple medications were at greatest risk for drug-drug interactions. The highest preva- lence of drug-drug interaction involved a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug- warfarin exposure. Con- versely, drugs in this class such as diltiazem and verapamil may exert clinically 24 D. Diltiazem also may reduce metabolism of triazolam, midazolam, and methylprednisolone. Diverse cardiovascular agents have been documented as affected by grape- fruit juice constituents. Dihydropyridines, such as felodipine, nicardipine, and nifedipine, are examples of calcium channel blockers that may demonstrate enhanced systemic bioavailability (1. Other agents that may be significantly affected include amiodarone, quinidine, sildenafil, and propafenone. The kidney is the major organ responsible for elimination of parent drug and/or metabolite, with renal excretion the product of glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption. Factors affecting glomerular filtration include molecular size, protein binding, and number of functional nephrons. Tubular secretion of weak organic acids or bases occurs via active transport subject to competition with other substances. Tubular reabsorption of drugs occurs via active or passive transport in the distal tubule, and may be dependent on urine pH, urine flow rates, and drug properties, including ionization.
Comparison of systemic and renal effects of dopexamine and dopamine in norepinephrine-treated septic shock buy discount silagra 100mg online. Prospective randomized double-blind study comparing L-epinephrine and racemic epinephrine in the treatment of laryn- gotracheitis (croup) buy discount silagra 50mg line. Vasopressors and intestinal mucosal perfusion after cardiac surgery: Norepinephrine vs purchase silagra 100 mg visa. Comparison of the effects of amrinone and sodium nitroprusside on haemodynamics, contractility and myocardial metabo- lism in patients with cardiac failure due to coronary artery disease and dilated cardiomyopathy. Hemodynamic effects of amrinone and colloid administration in children following cardiac surgery. Efficacy and safety of milrinone in preventing low cardiac output syndrome in infants and children after corrective surgery for congenital heart disease. Milrinone: systemic and pulmonary hemody- namic effects in neonates after cardiac surgery. Predictors of clinical outcome in advanced heart failure patients on continuous intravenous milrinone therapy. Outpatient continuous parenteral inotropic therapy as bridge to transplantation in children with advanced heart failure. Selective pulmonary vasodilation with inhaled aerosolized milrinone in heart transplant candidates. Pharmacokinetics and side-effects of milrinone in infants and children after open heart surgery. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of milrinone lactate in pediatric patients with septic shock. A prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled interventional study. Clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal patients in septic shock. Intravenous arginine-vasopressin in children with vasodilatory shock after cardiac surgery. Dobutamine compensates deleterious hemodynamic and metabolic effects of vasopressin in the splanchnic region in endotoxin shock. Use of alpha-agonists for management of anaphylaxis occurring under anaesthesia: case studies and review. Supraventricular tachycardia in children: clinical features, response to treatment, and long-term follow-up in 217 patients. Continuous intravenous phenylephrine infusion for treatment of hypoxemic spells in tetralogy of Fallot. Phenylephrine increases pulmonary blood flow in children with tetralogy of Fallot. Vasopressors and intestinal mucosal perfusion after cardiac surgery: Norepinephrine vs. Effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and phenylephrine on microcirculatory blood flow in the gastrointestinal tract in sepsis. Use of alpha-agonists for management of anaphylaxis occur- ring under anaesthesia: case studies and review. Norepine- phrine and metaraminol in septic shock: a comparison of the hemodynamic effects. Perioperative haemodynamic effects of an intravenous infusion of calcium chloride in children following cardiac surgery. The effect of calcium on pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular function. Cardiovascular effects of intrave- nous triiodothyronine in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Thyroid hormone supplementation for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Triiodothyronine repletion in infants during cardiopulmonary bypass for congenital heart disease. Comparison between dobutamine and levosi- mendan for management of postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction. Effects of levosimendan on right ventricular afterload in patients with acute respiratory distress. Duration of haemodynamic action of a 24-h infusion in patients with congestive heart failure. Effects of serial levosimendan infusions on left ventricular performance and plasma biomarkers of myocardial injury and neuro- hormonal and immune activation in patients with advanced heart failure. Levosimendan improves right ventriculovascular coupling in a porcine model of right ventricular dysfunction. Levosimendan for the treatment of acute heart failure syndromes: time to identify subpopulations of responding patients. Preconditioning effects of levosimendan in coronary artery bypass-grafting—a pilot study.
Taken together buy silagra 50mg lowest price, these analyses suggest that etoposide is responsible for several non- random chromosomal translocations that are central to leukaemogenesis generic 100mg silagra overnight delivery. It is also note- worthy that etoposide treatment of phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes in culture is associated with an excess frequency of reciprocal translocations in addition to other abnormalities buy discount silagra 100 mg online, which include dicentrics and, less often, unbalanced or complex rearrangements, deletions and inversions. Chromosomes 1, 11 and 17 are frequent targets of these abnormalities (Maraschin et al. Deletions or loss of chromosomes 5 and 7 were significantly asso- ciated with exposure to alkylating agents (p = 0. These are also the common translocations in de-novo cases of leukaemia; however, while translocations of chromosome band 11q23 are present in most cases of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in infants and cases of monoblastic leukaemia in infants and young children, they are found in only about 5% of acute leukaemias in adults. More recently, chromosome band 11p15 was recognized as a site of recurrent translocations in leukaemias that follow etoposide-containing therapy (Stark et al. A group of 119 patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer were treated with four different cisplatin- based regimens, one of which contained etoposide; four patients developed acute myeloid leukaemia 13, 19, 28 and 35 months after the start of treatment, respectively. Three of the leukaemias had monoblastic features; in one case there was a t(9;11)(p22;q23) trans- location; in another there was t(9;11;18)(p22;q23;q12). The fourth case had a complex karyotype, with -5 and -7 abnormalities typical of alkylating agent-induced cases. Several additional case reports and cohort studies have indicated that, while the 9p22 locus is commonly involved in translocations with band 11q23 (Pedersen- Bjergaard et al. Observations of cases of undifferentiated leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with t(4;11)(q21;q23) suggested additional heterogeneity in the partner chromosomes involved in translocations with band 11q23 (Hunger et al. The translocation at band 11q23 was usually the only abnor- mality, but in five cases additional structural or numerical changes were detected. Trans- location of chromosome band 11q23 occurred in eight of the 10 cases, with fusions to band 9p21 or 9p22 in three cases and fusions to band 17q25, 19p13. Heterogeneous translocations involving band 11q23 were also observed in cases of leukaemia after epipodophyllotoxin-containing treatment for paediatric solid tumours. A translocation t(9;11)(p21;q23) was seen in two cases, one of which also contained t(4;11)(q26;p13). The treatment regimens were not described completely, but epipodophyllotoxins were used in two patients with translocations involving band 11q23. Karyotypic features in leukaemias were evaluated after more dose-intensive, repetitive adminis- tration of high-dose alkylating agents, anthracycline and etoposide for paediatric non- lymphoid solid tumours (Kushner et al. One case that occurred 24 months after the start of neuroblastoma treatment showed del(7)(q22) and del(11)(q13q23), possibly reflecting the combined effects of an alkyl- ating agent and an epipodophyllotoxin (Kushner et al. Two cases of acute myeloid leukaemia with t(8;21) were observed among 212 patients who received etoposide, cisplatin and bleomycin for germ-cell tumours (Pedersen-Bjergaard et al. Translocations t(3;21)(q26;q22) are uncommon variants in treatment-related acute myeloid leukaemia and treatment-related myelo- dysplastic syndrome (Nucifora & Rowley, 1995). Of five cases of leukaemia with t(3;21) after heterogeneous chemotherapy, one had been treated with etoposide (Rubin et al. Individual case reports indicate that t(15;17) is also a recurrent chromosomal alteration after etoposide-containing treatment for a variety of tumours (Raiker et al. Etoposide has rarely been used as a single agent, except in some cases for the treatment of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (Haupt et al. Although t(15;17) is present in the vast majority of cases of acute pro- myelocytic leukaemia, the karyotypes in cases where etoposide was used a single agent revealed -6, -10, +mar, +ring in one case and del(20)(q11q13) in another. Cyto- genetic analysis in one case in which etoposide was used with vinblastine and high- dose methylprednisolone did reveal the t(15;17), but in another case in which eto- poside was used the t(15;17) was detectable only by molecular analysis. At the cytogenetic level, abnormalities including add(11)(p15), inv(11)(p15q22), t(11;20)(p15;q11. Cytogenetic studies revealed that translocations, especially those involving chromosome band 11q23, are hallmark features of leukaemias related to etoposide. Later, detailed mapping by Southern blot analysis suggested a biased distribution of the translocation break-points in treatment-related leukaemias in the 3′ break-point cluster region (Strissel Broeker et al. This line of investigation yields insights about regions of the genome affected by the drugs and provides some clues about the mechanism. The break-point deviated from the predilection for 3′ distribution in the break-point cluster region that was suggested in the adult cases (Strissel Broeker et al. Heterogeneous partner genes have been reported to be involved in the translocation. The site-specific cleavage was attributed to the higher-order chromatin fragmentation which occurs during apoptosis. Most recently, the t(11;20)(p15;q11) was identified in two paediatric cases of treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome after exposure to multi-agent chemo- therapy in which etoposide was included. Etoposide gave mainly negative responses in a range of assays in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes.
From the above definition it is quite evident that the sensitivity takes no cognizance of the noise-level of the base-line buy silagra 100 mg, therefore cheap 100mg silagra overnight delivery, it is more or less of no use as a definite guide to the least quantity of an element which may be estimated silagra 50 mg amex. However, the sensitivity of a 1% absorption-is a pure theoretical number only that would undergo a change solely depending on the efficiency of the lamp (hollow-cathode-lamp), atomizer, flame-system employed, monochromator (prism, grating used), and finally the photomultiplier used. The sensitivity for 1% absorbance is determined by the help of the expression given below : C0. It is an usual practice to perform an actual-test-run over a sufficiently large range by employing the necessary prevailing expansion facility so as to ascertain fully whether or not the atomic absorption tech- nique is reasonably applicable to a specific low-level estimation. Such a data may ultimately reveal the exact and true detection limit which is normally equals to twice the noise level. A few typical examples of spectral interferences are given below : (a) Spectral interferences caused either by the combustion products which show broad-band absorp- tion or the particulate products which scatter radiation. In fact, both these products distinctly lower the power of the transmitted beam of light and ultimately give rise to positive analytical errors. Remedy (a) When the source of the combustion or particulate products is the full and oxidant mixture alone, then a blank is aspirated into the flame and the necessary corrections are effected from the observed absorbances. Here, the lines are read together proportionately to the extent of overlap if the spectral band after passing through the monochromator allows the undersired radiation to reach the photoreceptor finally. For instance : Manganese triplet (at 4031°, 4033° and 4035° A) : potassium doublet (at 4044° and 4047° A) and the gallium line (at 4033° A). In such a situation, it has been noticed that the power of the transmitted beam-designated as P, is reduced by the nonanalyte components, whereas the incident beam power-designated as Po, is not ; thereby resulting in a positive error in absorbance and hence in concentration. Example : Determination of Barium in alkaline-earth mixtures affords a potential matrix interference due to absorption. It has been observed that an intense and useful absorption line for barium atoms, occurring at 553. However, their effects may very often be minimized by appropriate choice of experimental parameters. This is evidently on account of the formation of 4 fairly stable phosphates of Mg and Ca which do not readily split-up into the respective atoms in the mantle of a flame. Protective Agents : These agents are found to inhibit the interferences by virture of their ability to form relatively stable but volatile species with the respective analyte. Ionization Interferences It has been observed that the ionization of atoms or molecules is comparatively very small in magni- tude in combustion mixtures which essentially involve air as the oxidant and, therefore, may be ignored and neglected. Example : The intensity of atomic absorption lines for the alkali metals, such as : potassium (K) ; rubidium (Rb) ; and caesium (Cs), is found to be affected by temperature in a complex way. Under certain experimental parameters a noticeable decrease in absorption may be observed in hotter flames. Hence, lower excitation temperatures are invariably recommended for the analysis of alkali metals. Remedy : The resulting effects of shifts in ionization equilibrium may be eliminated effectively by the addition of an ionization suppressor, that promptly gives a comparatively high concentration of electrons to the flame. This ultimately results in the suppression of ionization by the respective analyte. Determination of both total zinc and zinc in solution is performed on a sample of the supernatant liquid obtained by centrifuging the suspension. The percentage of total zinc and of zinc in solution varies according to the strength of the preparation viz. Materials Required : Stock solution of Zn (5000 mcg ml–1) : Dissolve Zn metal (Anala-R-Grade) 2. Spray the solution by adopting the standard procedure and read off the concentration of zinc from a calibration curve prepared with solution containing 0. Heat, gently at first, then more strongly until all carbon is removed and a white ash is obtained. Allow to cool and add 5 ml of a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid and evaporate to dryness on a water-bath. Add 3 ml of hydrochloric acid, warm to dissolve and add sufficient water to produce 25 ml. Place in each of three similar graduated flasks equal volumes of the solution of the substance pre- pared as above. Add to all but one of these flasks a measured quantity of the specified standard solution of palladium to produce a series of solutions containing increases amounts of Pd. After calibrating the instrument as stated above, introduce each solution into the generator 3 times and record the steady reading at 248 nm. Plot the mean of the readings against concentration on a graph the axes of which intersect at zero added Pd and zero reading. Extrapolate the straight line joining the points until it meets the extrapolated concentration axis.
The pharmacokinetics of didanosine is not significantly altered when it is administered with zidovudine (Morse et al generic 50mg silagra. A single oral dose of 375 mg didanosine was administered to two pregnant women (length of amenorrhoea purchase silagra 100mg free shipping, 21 and 24 weeks) order 50mg silagra. Single, isolated portions (cotyledons) of fresh, full-term human placenta were perfused from both the fetal and the maternal side with Krebs-Ringer buffer (closed or open system). The transfer of didanosine (3–30 μmol/L) across the placenta was reported to be passive, with equal transfer in both directions. Little or no placental meta- bolism of didanosine was reported (Dalton & Au, 1993; Henderson et al. Single, isolated cotyledons of fresh, full-term placenta were perfused from both the fetal and the maternal side with Earle’s buffered salt solution with added glucose, amino acids and serum albumin (concentration of didanosine, 1–500 μmol/L). Most of these studies and the use of the drug in clinical practice involve oral dosing at 400 mg/day, although intravenous dosing was documented in a number of studies (Perry & Balfour, 1996). Oral dosing poses specific problems because the drug is acid- labile and its bioavailability decreases in the presence of food (Hartman et al. It is, however, distributed to plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, the concentrations in the latter typically being much lower than those in plasma (Hartman et al. A quantitatively minor pathway that is responsible for the antiretroviral activity of the drug involves phos- phorylation and reversible amination of didanosine monophosphate to dideoxyadeno- sine monophosphate through the action of adenylosuccinate synthetase and adenylo- succinate lyase (Yarchoan et al. Approximately 40% of the total dose is recovered as unchanged drug in the urine, about 50% as hypoxanthine and about 4% as uric acid (Yarchoan et al. The major metabolic pathway (Figure 1) involves metabolism to uric acid through purine nucleotide phosphorylase, which produces hypoxanthine. This compound either re-enters the purine nucleotide pools or is further metabolized to xanthine and uric acid through the action of xanthine oxidase (Hartman et al. The proportion of the drug excreted unchanged in the urine was reported to be either 19% (Qian et al. There is evidence of extensive distribution in the body, although the concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was 4. In rats, didanosine is distributed to the plasma, kidney, brain, cerebrospinal fluid and intestine after oral or intravenous dosing at 40–200 mg/kg bw (Hoesterey et al. Bio- availability of 14–33% has been reported after oral and rectal administration (Wientjes & Au, 1992a,b; Bramer et al. The rate of clearance of the drug from plasma was 66–115 mL/min per kg bw, while the renal clearance rate in the same rats was 18–33 mL/min per kg bw (Wientjes & Au, 1992a,b). The time from dosing to maximum plasma concentration was reported to be 8–35 min (Hoesterey et al. Unchanged drug in the urine accounted for 4% of the total dose after several hours (Wientjes & Au, 1992a) and 18% in a 24-h urine collection (Bramer et al. The clearance rates appear to slow with increasing dose, and the biphasic decline in plasma concentrations after dosing was suggestive of a slow equilibrium with tissue. The concentrations of drug in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid reached 5% and 2%, res- pectively, of those in plasma (Hoesterey et al. Clearance of didanosine from the brain and cerebral spinal fluid is retarded by probenecid (Hoesterey et al, 1991). The pharmacokinetics does not change in the presence of zidovudine (Wientjes & Au, 1992b). In dogs, didanosine given orally or intravenously at doses of 20–500 mg/kg bw was metabolized rapidly, and 46–51% of the dose was recovered in urine; the other 50% was unaccounted for. The rate of clearance from plasma was 23 mL/min per kg bw, and the half-time for removal was 30–60 min (Kaul et al. The concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid were 3–11% of those in plasma (Wientjes et al. Three pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that were near term (146 days) received radiolabelled didanosine as a bolus dose of 2. Later studies suggested that didanosine has a weaker association with peripheral neuropathy than was suggested in phase I clinical trials (Kelleher et al. Peri- pheral neuropathy has been observed mainly at high doses and in individuals treated for at least four months. The effect has been demonstrated in 12–34% of didanosine- treated patients, and is reversible upon withdrawal of the drug (Rozencweig et al. Among 7806 zidovudine-resistant patients participating in the Didanosine Expanded Access Program, 5% reported pancreatitis (Pike & Nicaise, 1993). In all of the studies, the symptoms correlated with cumulative treatment and typically subsided after disconti- nuation of therapy. Like zidovudine and zalcitabine, didanosine occasionally caused a rare (1 in 105 to 1 in 106 patients) idiosyncratic syndrome consisting of increased liver enzyme acti- vity, hepatic steatosis, fulminant hepatitis and severe lactic acidosis after long-term (more than three months) treatment; this syndrome can be fatal (Lai et al. Other miscellaneous and rare human toxic effects include acute, reversible thrombocytopenia (Lor & Liu, 1993), retinal toxicity (Cobo et al. Cell-mediated (T cell) immunity was moderately suppressed at 250 mg/kg bw for > 14 days, and suppression of humoral (B cell) immune response was observed at 100 mg/kg bw given for > 28 days. In order to investigate the mechanism of didanosine-induced neuropathy, rats were dosed orally twice daily with 41.
Storage Store in a sealed container protected from light in refrigerator (2 to 8⁰C) buy 100mg silagra free shipping. The container should be sterile purchase silagra 100mg on-line, tamper evident and sealed so as to exclude micro-organisms generic silagra 50 mg with mastercard. They are rarely, needed when shock is due to Sodium and water depleton as, in these circumstances, the shock responds to water and electrolyte repleton. Plasma substtutes should not be used to maintain plasma volume in conditons such as burns or peritonits where there is loss of plasma protein, water and electrolytes over periods of several days. In these situatons, plasma or plasma protein frac- tons containing large amounts of albumin should be given. Plasma substtutes may be used as an immediate short-term measure to treat massive haemorrhage untl blood is avail- able, but large volumes of some plasma substtutes can increase the risk of bleeding by depletng coagulaton factors. Dextran may interfere with blood group cross-matching or biochemical measurements and these should be carried out before the infusion is started. Albumin* Pregnancy Category-C Indicatons Burns, hypoproteinaemia, shock, hypovolemia, acute liver failure, dialysis. Contraindicatons Congestve heart failure, severe anaemia, history of allergic reactons to human albumin; pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Administraton of albumin should be supplemented or replaced by packed red blood cells, history of cardiac or circulatory disease, increased capillary permeability. Adverse efects Allergic (or) pyrogenic reactons, tachycardia, rash, anaphylactc shock, increased salivaton. Human albumin stored at 2-8⁰C may be expected to contnue to meet the requirements of the monograph for fve years from the date on which it was heated at at 60⁰C for 10 hours. Human albumin stored at a temperature not exceeding 25⁰C may be expected to meet the requirements of the monograph for three years from the date on which it was heated at 60⁰C for 10 hours. Dextran 40* Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Plasma volume expansion during hypovolemic shock when blood not available, Prophylaxis of thromboembolic disorders to improve local circulaton in peripheral vascular occlusion. Dose Intravenous To improve local circulaton in peripheral vascular occlusion: Adult- 500-1000 ml (10- 20 ml/kg) in frst 24 hours; thereafer 500 ml every 1-2 days for up to 2 weeks. Thromboembolism prophylaxis: Adult- 500- 1000 ml (10-20 ml/kg) on day of surgery, then 500 ml daily for 2-3 days, then 500 ml every second or third day, for up to 2 weeks. Shock: Adult- initally 500-1000 ml (10-20 ml/ kg) infused as rapidly as needed; may follow with 500 ml (10 ml/kg) during the same 24 hour period; thereafer 500 ml (10 ml/kg) may be repeated daily for up to 5 days. Contraindicatons Hypersensitvity, cardiac decompensaton, oliguria or anuria, hemostatc defects, thrombocytopenia, blood coagulaton disorder, pulmonary oedema, neonates. Hydroxy Ethyl Starch* Pregnancy Category-C Indicatons Therapy for hypovolaemia, shock in surgery, trauma and infecton to improve haemody- namics, macrocirculaton, microcirculaton and oxygen supply; improve organ functon in blood loss. Contraindicatons Renal failure; haemorrhage; coagulaton disorders; anuria; oligouria. Precautons Should be used with cauton in patents with cardiac disease; liver disease; or renal impairment; urine output should be monitored. Care should be taken to avoid haematocrit concentraton from falling below 25-30% and the patent should be monitored for hypersensitvity reactons; bleeding disorder; sufcient fuid should be administered to avoid dehydraton; pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Adverse Efects Hypersensitvity reactons may occur including; rarely,; severe anaphylactoid reactons; transient increase in bleeding tme may occur; headache; tachycardia; itching; fall in blood pressure. Dose Slow intravenous infusion Adult and child- Haemophilia B: according to patent’s needs. Contraindicatons Disseminated intravascular coagulaton; hypersensitvity to any component of the product. Precautons Risk of thrombosis (probably less risk with highly purifed preparatons); pregnancy (Appendix 7c); preexistng disease; check heart rate; interactons (Appendix 6c). Adverse Efects Allergic reactons including chills; fever; hepatts; pulmonary embolism; disseminated intravascular coagulaton. Dose Slow intravenous infusion Adult and child- Haemophilia A; according to patent’s needs. Adverse Efects Allergic reactons including chills; fever; hepatts; anaphylaxis; fulminatng hepatts. Tranexamic Acid Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Preventon of hemorrhage due to dental procedures in hemophilics, cyclic heavy menstrual bleeding, hereditary angioedema, cone biopsy, epistaxis, traumatc hyphema. Dose Dental extracton in Hemophilics: Immediately before tooth extracton, 10 mg/ kg intravenously. Following tooth extracton, intravenous therapy, at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight three to four tmes daily, may be used for 2 to 8 days. Contraindicatons Hypersensitvity, acquired defectve colour vision, subarachnoid hemorrhage, actve intravascular clotng, pregnancy (Appendix 7c), interactons (Appendix 6c). Retnal venous and arterial occlusion has been reported in patents using tranexamic acid. Adverse Efects Nausea, vomitng, diarhoea, disturbances in colour vision (discontnue), thromboembolic events, allergic skin reactons; giddiness and hypotension on rapid intravenous injecton, headache, backache, musculoskeletal pain. Storage Store protected from light and moisture at a temperature not exceeding 30⁰C. They are there- fore used widely in the preventon and treatment of deep- vein thrombosis in the legs, prophylaxis of embolizaton in rheumatc heart disease and atrial fbrillaton and to prevent thrombi forming on prosthetc heart valves.